Review on Salmonellosis in Poultry and Its Public Health Importance

Mesfin Zewdu


Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease, which cause a serious illness in animals including birds and humans. The disease is caused by various serotypes of Salmonella which are aerobic and faculatative anaerobic, gram-negative rods and motile with the exception of S.pullorum and S.Gallinarum.Salmonella, like most Enterobacteriaceae, are motile, nonspore forming, reduce nitrates to nitrites, ferment glucose, and are oxidase negative.The genus Salmonellaconsists of only two species, Salmonella bongori and Salmonella enterica, with the latter being divided into six subspecies; S. entericasubsp. enterica, S. entericasubsp. salamae, S. enteric subsp. arizonae, S. entericasubsp. diarizonae, S. entericasubsp. houtenae, and S. entericasubsp. indica. It constitutes a major public health burden and represents asignificant cost in many countries. The presence of any serotype ofSalmonella in food renders that food unfit for human consumption.Salmonella are known for its wide range host. It can cause variety ofdiseases in some hosts while in others, can be asymptomatic. Poultry andeggs are considered as major sources for these pathogenic microorganisms. The disease is transmitted from animal to animal, animal to human and human to human direct or indirect pathway. Among Salmonella spp. Salmonella Entericais one of the Salmonella serotypes responsible for causing enteric disease in humans.

Keywords: Salmonella, public health, poultry, prevention

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