Evaluation of WA Township's Public Toilet Management and the Adequacy of Services Provided to Commuters and Households without Toilets

Isaac Kwabena Ayereka, Juventus Benogle Ziem, Patience Binambiba Jaman, Emmanuella Nzeribe


Around the world, commuters use public toilets, often in public places. In Ghana, most people use public toilets (PTs) because of inadequate household toilets. Due to high pressure and insufficient maintenance, these PTs are usually dirty, smelly, unhygienic, etc. This study investigated PTs' maintenance and Operation in Wa township, Ghana. A total of 44 PTs in Wa were included in the study. The geographical coordinates of the PTs were recorded using hand-held GPS receivers. The results showed that the majority (95.46%) of the PTs were in the central business districts and low-income residential areas, with an average usage of 8,022 people per day in all 44 PTs and 191 people per PT daily. The majority (95.46%) of PTs did not have adequate staff for regular cleaning, inadequate hand washing facilities, or other disinfectants needed for cleaning. The number of cesspit emptier trucks (3) was not sufficient to operate in all PTs; some PT operators momentarily closed their toilets when the septic tank was full until they finally got the trucks to pump out the excreta. Others hired workers to manually collect the sludge with a bucket and pour it into the yard. It was also found that about 70% of Municipal Assembly PTs (MAPTs) were poorly constructed, maintained, and repaired. Despite these problems, PTs can be clean and hygienic if adequately managed. This paper recommends that MAPTs be privatized to ensure proper and efficient management. PT operators who inappropriately dispose of fecal sludge should be prosecuted.

Keywords: Water, Hygiene, Public, Private, Toilet

DOI: 10.7176/CER/15-1-05

Publication date: April 28th 2023

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email: CER@iiste.org

ISSN (Paper)2224-5790 ISSN (Online)2225-0514

Please add our address "contact@iiste.org" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright © www.iiste.org