Potability Assessment of Notable Water Sources in Nitte Community, India

Samson O. Ojoawo, Gaddale Udayakumar, Srinath Shetty


Quality is believed to best describe any given water more than other yardsticks. Water quality assessment is therefore a worthwhile study. Potable water is that which possesses the quality that renders it fit and safe for drinking. This research is necessitated by the need for ensuring consumption of wholesome water by all, and particularly in the study area. This study focuses on the quality assessment of some selected water sources in Nitte community, Udupi District of Karnataka State, India. Eight Samples from notable water sources were collected for the study, they include: Monsoon river water, Harmattan river water, distilled/deionized water, borehole, open well, rain water, UV sterilized, and mineral/bottled water. These were subjected to laboratory analysis at the NMAM Institute of Technology (NMAMIT), Nitte. Parameters that were measured include: colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, acidity, alkalinity, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, total hardness, calcium hardness, zinc, copper, magnesium, lead, and total coliform. Findings reveal that all sampled sources, apart from the river water, have most of the characteristics within the limits provided for drinking water by the MUD, WHO and USEPA standards.  Samples are clear, tasteless and odourless, with the exception of Parappadi river water samples in both seasons of the year that have slightly objectionable physical properties. Some of the samples need slight modifications in their pH values to meet the drinking standard’s specifications. Electrical conductivity of rain water is observed to be extremely higher than all other samples. Groundwater sources, borehole and well, possess higher chloride levels and greater hardness values as compared to others. Well water tops others in the hardness scale with soft permanent hardness. The most acidic sample is borehole water while distilled, well and mineral water samples are all with the higher alkalinity levels. River water samples exceed others in their sulphate concentrations while distilled water has the least value. Heavy metals concentrations in the samples are generally minimal, found in microgram per litre levels as compared to the milligrams of the Standards. Traces of lead and coliform bacteria are detected only in river water samples.  The study concludes that the order of potability of the sampled water sources is Mineral/table > UV sterilized > Distilled water > Borehole > Rain > Well > Harmattan River > Monsoon River water. Mineral/table and UV sterilized water are directly potable without further treatments. For quality improvement, full scale treatment with all the unit processes is recommended for the river water. Lime treatment and disinfection are strongly suggested for rain, borehole, distilled and well water. The well water should be further subjected to softening by either lime soda or ion exchange treatment. Arising from this study, it is therefore highly imperative for all the concerned authorities to, as a matter of priority, cite a Water Treatment Plant in Nitte community.

Keywords: Potability, Pollution, Water Quality, Nitte

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5790 ISSN (Online)2225-0514

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