Effects of Urban Sprawl on Meningococcal Meningitis Incidence in Kaduna Urban Area, Nigeria

T. E. Umaru, G. Morenikeji, I. V. Martins, S. G. Owoyele


Meningococcal meningitis is an airborne disease that has overwhelmed the lives of many people for over a century now. There are factors that are connected to the spread of the disease. They include level of income, social behavior, housing condition, climate, environment and urbanization. The “African meningitis belt” which is a region located around west Africa is the most plagued by the disease. This study aims at exploring the deviational distribution and standard distance in relation to the effects that the urban sprawl has on the spatial pattern of the spread of the disease in Kaduna urban area. The Meningococcal meningitis reported cases (confirmed and unconfirmed) were used for the study and it was sourced from the public and private hospitals within Kaduna urban area. For each of those years, satellite images (quick bird) were used by digitizing the urban lands and comparing all the years together. Directional distribution and standard distance analysis were conducted using spatial statistical tools in ArcGIS 10.1. The results of the digitized imageries, the directional distribution, and the standard distance were analyzed so as to determine the relationship between urbanization and the disease spread. It was observed from the result that those years that had higher sprawl are more affected by the disease.

Keywords: Spatial Pattern, Meningococcal meningitis, Urban sprawl, Directional Distribution, Standard Distance

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484

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