Economy - Politic Evaluation of Urbanization in Turkey

Ismail Taner


Urbanization, which afford from shelter to combined accommodation units for human communities beings which is one of the most fundamental process, have provided man made environment with physical and social spatial integrity. In the development of societies throughout the history, the need for urbanization emerged and met in different ways in every era. While urbanization development basically serves to economic, social and physical development. In the Republican Period (for 95 years) in Turkey, new approaches and institutional structures have been established to solve urbanization problem. These structures have shown changes in line with shifting policies central administration have adopted in different times. Basically different methods have emerged as a solution for the urbanization problem since the 1950s. After Ankara became the capital city (1923), statism-weighted mixed economy, which had been implemented since the early years of the Republic, was abandoned and a liberal competitive economy with private enterprise system was adopted and implemented. State failed to satisfy the need for housing increased needs emerging with a great waves of migration heading towards cities after the World War II, the real problem is that villagers with simple technologies in their small worlds and peasantry dependent on stable traditions started to break away from soil. This process started in the 1950’s with the introduction of many tractors and other agricultural tools. This structural change has become irreversible with farms and increasing number of waged-workers. With the spread of this process in waves, a great and swift change in the relationships, institutions, values and mindsets of the old social structure have occurred. As a reflection of change in political decision making compared to the previous periods, large capital business was encouraged to take part in human dwellings spaces into the development progress of urbanization. Up to 1980’ s, small capital enterpreneur ( building-seller) using town capital accumlation and surplus value from agriculture changed forcing the planning order of city, Also gecekondu construction formed outer zone of planing areas. After 1980’s, great contractor come up determining of urban space.

Keywords: Urbanization, urbanization development, socio-econmic evaluation, city development.

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ISSN (online) 2422-8702