Bacterial Contamination of Potable Processed, Packaged, And Commercialized Water in Parts of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Jamila Abdullahi, Denwe Samuel Dangmwan, Yahaya Abdullahi Umar, Benthai Benjamin, Baba Bukar Alhaji


A study was conducted to isolate and characterize Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae from three (3) types of packaged commercial water (sachet, bottle and dispenser jar) in Kaduna metropolis. Membrane filtration technique was employed in screening for viable pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae); coliform indicator (Escherichia coli) and the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.). A total of 270 samples from 90 brands were collected randomly comprising of 171, 69 and 30 of sachet, bottle and dispenser jar using a patronage ratio of 6:2:1 of the three types of packaged water by consumers. Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae appeared more with the prevalence of 11(15.9%) and 9(13.1%) of the 69 bottles; followed by 3(10.0%) and 2(6.7%) in dispenser jars; then 15(8.8%) and 5(2.9%) in sachet samples respectively. The probability of a consumer likely picking a bacteria contaminated water from sachet, bottle and dispenser jar was found to be 0.117, 0.290 and 0.166 respectively. There was no significant difference in level of contamination at p≥0.01 (99%) for all the three types of packaged water. Molecular confirmation of cholera toxigenic gene (CtxA) in Vibrio cholerae isolates is suggestive that virulent strains were present and clinical infection is possible for consumers of the contaminated water. In conclusion, there is therefore an equal possibility of contracting food-borne bacterial infection and intoxication without any relative safety advantage between the three different packaged brands. Manufacturers of the water might need to reinvigorate and improve their method of processing to ensure almost complete sterility in the end product as the presence of even one bacterial pathogen may adversely affect the health of consumers of the water. This development could spell negative consequences for the manufacturers of the product, as consumers might be scared of consuming their products.

Keywords: Salmonella tyhi, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas sp. Escherichia coli

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3186 ISSN (Online)2225-0921

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