Factors Affecting Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy among Pregnant Females

Hafsa Ashraf, Humza Ashraf, Saad Ashraf


Objective: Objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women regarding iron deficiency anemia.

Methodology: Two analytical designs were combined in this study which is cross sectional survey and qualitative inquiry. Total no. of 1230 cases was included in the study. Study was conducted in department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nishtar Hospital Multan, Quid e Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur and Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore from May 2016 to September 2017. A questionnaire was developed that was divided into three major parts covering demographic data, awareness and approach of women during pregnancy about iron deficiency anemia. Blood samples were collected from all participants and complete blood count (CBC) was conducted for all pregnant women. All the patients were divided into two groups after being diagnosed as iron deficiency anemia or non iron deficiency anemia group IDA and group non-IDA respectively. Multiple demographic variables and possible risk factors regarding knowledge attitude and practice were determined by using predesigned questionnaire. Data thus obtained through questionnaire and blood testing was subjected to statistical analysis by using SPSS computer software version 23. Chi square test was applied to check the significance of different variables and incidence of iron deficiency anemia. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Overall, 100% (n=1230) female patients were included, in this study; divided into two groups i.e. IDA 67% (n=824) and non-IDA 33% (n=406) patients. High level of knowledge was reported by IDA group of the participants and non-IDA groups of the participants, in regard to the knowledge towards IDA. Significant difference was found between the questions, in both the groups. It is important to note that high level of knowledge was found, for all aspects related to IDA, among non-IDA group of the study population, thus reflected an acceptable level of knowledge among the study population in general. No significant difference was found between demographic and clinical variables, in groups, except health problems (p=0.000). High positive attitude was found of non-IDA group as compare to IDA group. Significant difference was found between attitudes towards IDA, in groups.


From this study it is concluded that despite provision of primary health care in accord to international recommendations, level of knowledge and attitude regarding iron deficiency among pregnant women anemia is still deficit and requires further conduction of educational programs to enhance public awareness.

Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Anemia, Pregnancy, Iron Deficiency


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