Antioxidant Profile of Graded Levels of Unprocessed Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Seeds Assayed from Liver and Kidneys of Male Wistar Strain Rats

Soetan, K.O.


The present study investigated the hepatic and renal antioxidant profiles in male Wistar rats fed with graded levels of unprocessed pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds for 21 days. The study consisted of six groups of 5 rats each. Group A was fed 10% pigeon pea inclusion diet (PPID), group B: 20% (PPID), Group C: 30% (PPID), Group D: 40% (PPID), Group E: 100% pigeon pea diet (PPD), while Group F rats were fed with commercial rat feed and served as the control. Endogenous activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase and superoxide dismutase as well oxidative stress markers including hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde were analyzed in the liver and kidney of the rats. Results showed that reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased in the kidneys whereas it increased significantly above the control in the liver tissues of rats in all the fed groups. Feeding of unprocessed Cajanus cajan caused a significant increase in the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level in the liver of 30% PPID and in 40% PPID group and in the kidney at 100% PPD group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the liver and kidney tissues of the rats with the highest value in the 40% PPID for the liver of the rats. Renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly decreased in 10% PPID and in 30% PPID rats whereas hepatic SOD activity increased in the 40% PPID and in 100% PPD group. Hepatic catalase activity increased significantly in all treatment groups whereas the increase in renal catalase activity was noted only in 40% PPID and in 100% PPD group.  In conclusion, consumption of unprocessed pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds disrupted antioxidant system and induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of rats.

Keywords: Pigeon pea, antioxidant, liver, kidney, rats.

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