Epidemiology and Control of Bovine Theileriosis in Ethiopia: Review

Abdela Nejash


Globally haemoprotozoan  diseases  are causing  devastating  losses  to  the  livestock  industry  Bovine Theileriosis is also a tick-borne hemoprotozoan disease   in cattle caused by several Theileria species and among them T. parva the cause of East Coast fever and T. annulata the cause of tropical theileriosis  are most pathogenic and economically important. Despite widespread distribution of different Theileria species affecting cattle in Ethiopia the gap of well documented information exist and the paper focus on reviewing the epidemiology and control of bovine Theileriosis and highlighting the disease status in Ethiopia. Theileriae are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and they have complex life cycles involving both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Tropical theileriosis and east Coast fever are disease transmitted through by Ixodid tick of genus Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus respectively. Furthermore, the sporozoites are transmitted to animals in the saliva of the feeding tick. PCR is the most beneficial molecular tool for diagnosis of infection till date than blood and lymph node smear examination and serological tests.  Bovine Theileriosis has global economic significance thus prevention is the best method to control loss related with the disease. Among Several control methods the most practical and widely used method is the chemical control of ticks with acaricides. However, tick control practices are not always fully effective and vaccination is the most sustainable option. Since there is difference in breed of cattle to tick resistance the selection of tick resistant cattle breeds is also proposed as a sustainable approach for controlling infection in developing world. Currently occurrence tropical theileriosi is confirmed in Ethiopia thus, more research should be conducted to design and implement appropriate control strategies and prevent disease spreading.

Keywords: Bovine theileriosis, Control, Hemoprotozoan, Theileria

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