Origin, Distribution, Impact and Management of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solm): A Review

Nagassa Dechassa


Water hyacinth is one of the world’s worst invasive weeds. It is native to South America and extremely invaded many tropical and subtropical countries of all the continents. The ability to produce via runners, stolons and seed; fast growth; seed persistence in the soil and its beautiful flower facilitates the spread of the weed from region to regions from time to time. Blockage of irrigation, electric power generation, fish production and water way transportation are the major economic impacts of the weed. Manual and mechanical removal of water hyacinth in small areas at early time is effective in controlling the weed for short period of time. Use of biological control agents; arthropods (Neochetina brunchi, Neochetina eichhorniae, Niphograpta albiguttalis and Orthogalumna terebrantis) and parasitic fungi (Cercospora rodmanii, Alternaria alternata and Alternaria eichhorniae) play a role in controlling the weed. In addition Chemical control with 2, 4-D dimethyl amine, glyphosphate and acetic acid are effective to control water hyacinth in extreme cases. Integrated use of herbicidal and mechanical control measures is effective in control, economically safe and environmentally friendly than a single control measures.

Keywords: Alternaria, Aquatic weed, Invasive weed, Neochetina, Weed control, Weevils

DOI: 10.7176/JEES/10-10-02

Publication date:October 31st 2020

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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