Climate Change Effects and the Resulting Adaptation Strategies of Smallholder Farmers in Three Different Ecological Zones (Kilifi, Embu and Budalangi) in Kenya

Benards Okeyo, Sheila Mumbi Wamugi


Smallholder farmers in Kenya are faced by effects of climate change which results to loss of crop and livestock productions. Consequently, smallholder farmers suffer crop and livestock losses, causing devastation and food insecurity situation. This study provides findings on the effects, adaptation approaches carried out by smallholder farmers of Embu, Kilifi and Budalangi to climate change. The study objectives were achieved through use of survey design. Mixed approach of quantitative and qualitative data analysis was applied. Sampling included multi stage sampling. Three study sites were chosen based on different ecosystem conditions in Kenya. Linear regression was used to demonstrated crops and rainfall trends. Mean temperatures noted to increase slightly and greater variations in the mean seasonal rainfalls in all the three study areas. Declining trend of crop yields was noted for Kilifi (R = - 0.032). The research findings evidently showed that climate change is impacting on smallholder farmers and farming systems in the study area..

Keywords: Smallholder farmers; climate change and adaptation strategies

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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