Effects of Some Heavy Metal Pollutants on Vitamin C and E Production In Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) In In Situ Bio-Assay In River Galma, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Patrick Ozovehe Samuel, John Ameh Adakole, Bolanle Suleiman


This research focuses on the effects of some heavy metals on production of Vitamin E and C in Clarias gariepinus in an in situ bioassay in River Galma.120 samples (40 per exposure) of 20-45g size range of juveniles were exposed to the river environment for fourteen days in a cage system at five different locations along the river course for three different periods of the year. Vitamins E and C were assayed for after the 14th day of exposure. Heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn and Mn) contents were also tested for in digested pooled samples of water, livers and gills of the fish.

The results indicate significant difference in the levels of Vitamin E and C production in the gill in all the months of exposure at P<0.05 level of significance but not in the liver. There were significant differences in the Chromium concentration in the gills and livers of the fish in all the exposures. Also, there was significant difference  amongst the fish organs, water samples and Lead (Pb) concentrations. There were correlations amongst Vitamin E and C and the heavy metals. There was strong correlation between Vitamin E levels and Lead concentrations in all the exposure periods. This research also established the presence of heavy metals examined in varying degrees of concentrations in water samples and fish organs.

Vitamin E and C can be used as biomarkers of pollution in River Galma to give early warning on environmental pollution to the community and policy makers.

Keywords: Oxidative stress; Vitamin E and C; Reactive Oxygen Species; Heavy metals; Biomarkers

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3216 ISSN (Online)2225-0948

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