From Expatriate Labour to Localisation: A Milestone Analysis of Botswana Education Sector 2008 - 2014

Clarence Itai Mhizha, Bonang S. Mojewa


Government of Botswana embraced a policy of citizen economic empowerment in its development planning process. Prior to, and after formalisation of such policies in 2012, a number of programmes and policies aimed at supporting citizen economic empowerment have been implemented (Government Paper NO. 1 OF 2012). The Localisation Policy gives preference to employment of Batswana over non-citizens with similar educational and training qualifications.  This paper sought to do an impact analysis of the localisation policy with specific reference to the education sector. The policy on localisation like other empowerment policies was not limited to only one sector of the economy but to all.    The period 2008 – 2016 was covered. This paper will however limit its analysis of the localisation milestones achieved in the education sector for the period 2008-2014.  Analysis relied much on a self-study approach by reporting and analysing statistics published by the Government of Botswana themselves.  The analysis put into consideration that in their policy document Botswana Government states clearly that they will not only train for the local market when they state that “to this end, Botswana will adopt global standards in providing for the necessary human resources needs of domestic enterprises and ensure that Batswana skills are marketable in the global labour market (Government Paper NO. 1 OF 2012:1-2).” The paper adopted a secondary research approach in which related literature (Government of Botswana policy paper on localisation Paper No. 1 OF 2012, Botswana labour statistics report 2011; 2014; Statistics Botswana Annual Report 2015/2016, Bank of Botswana annual report 2015; Statistics Botswana Selected Statistical indicators 1966-2016; and other general literature) were perused and analysed.

Key findings revealed that expatriate numbers in the education sector were on a year to year increase between 2008 and 2011. In 2008, there were 427 permit holders in the education sector compared to 925 in 2011. The trend however improved from 2012 to 2014. Significant decrease of expatriate teachers was experienced. The decreases were significate from 925 in 2011 to 526 in 2012 and 474 and 476 in 2013 and 2014 respectively. This aforementioned analysis depicts a struggle in implementation in the early years of the project which could be due to different reasons which this research does not intend to address.

Keywords: Expatriate Labour, Botswana Education

DOI: 10.7176/JESD/11-12-14

Publication date:June 30th 2020

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