The Impact of Green Schemes on the Livelihood of Communities in the Kavango Region, Namibia

Sophia M. Isala, David M. Mburu, Kletus M. Likuwa


Agricultural production in the dry lands is limited by inadequate rainfall to grow crops but irrigated agriculture increases crop yields for food security and economic benefits to the community. The irrigation projects in Namibia have been termed as Green Schemes as they give a green formation that is different from the surrounding dry vegetation. This study investigated the impacts of the Green Scheme on the livelihood of communities. In particular it sought to ask: are there economic benefits and a change in the diversification of food stuff to people living around the Green Schemes; and what challenges do the people around the Green Schemes experience? A survey was conducted on 30 households in each of the two villages. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select Green Schemes and households respectively. Personal interviews were undertaken using structured and unstructured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, frequencies and cross tabulations were used to outline respondents according to the impacts of the Green Scheme. The study revealed that there was no significant association between economic activities of the two village settings (p>0.05). Most variables were the same before and after the scheme for both village settings. Changes in food diversification for people were assessed and results indicated that food items for consumption reduced for Sikondo village and increased in Siyandeya village. The study further highlights community’s assertion that Green Schemes are not adding significant improvements or changes to community livelihoods as no significant developments in the surrounding villages have been attributed to the Green Schemes. The study further highlights that while there are benefits from the Green Schemes; these are minimal and are not worth their continuing challenges of water shortages and sanitation, their losses and expectations for improved livelihood. Significantly this study highlights the need to inculcate a change in attitude so as to encourage collaborative efforts between communities and the Green Schemes management which will impact on the livelihood of people positively.

Keywords: Kavango, Green scheme, Government intervention, Communities, Livelihood, Socio-economics, impacts, irrigation project.

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN (Paper)2222-1700 ISSN (Online)2222-2855

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©