Determinants of Households Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Ethiopia: Econometric analysis of Rural and Urban Households

Mesfin Welderufael


Understanding the causes and level of food security would help policy makers to design and implement more effective policies and programs for the poor and thereby helps to pave way to improve food security. This study tried to examine the extent of household’s vulnerability to food insecurity in urban and rural areas of Amhara regional state of Ethiopia. Analytical tools used include descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) and Logit model. The findings revealed that about 48% households were vulnerable to food insecure in Amhara region in 2011, with much higher for rural households. This implies that they were not able to meet the daily recommended caloric requirement which is 2200 kcal per day per AE.  The results obtained from A binary logistic model indicate those households with large family sizes; lower consumption expenditure, old age households, unemployed and male heads were more food insecure in urban areas. Besides livestock ownerships, farm inputs and farm size, shocks such as drought and illness were the determinants of rural household food insecurity. This finding strongly supports that input access by the poor, promotion of family planning; enhancing livestock packages creation of employment opportunities, delivery of food aid for emergency needy groups, can mitigate food insecurity in the study area. Additionally, Household food security can be improved in the region by focusing on education, creation of income generating opportunities which will raise consumption and family planning programs. The findings also imply that policies should promote diversification of livelihoods and equal opportunities and rights to access resources, particularly in rural areas.

Keywords: food insecurity, vulnerability, Amhara region

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