Impact of African Elephant (Loxodonta africana ) on Flora and Fauna Community and Options for Reducing the Undesirable Ecological Impacts

Debebe Dana Feleha


African elephant (Loxodonta africana, Blumenbach, 1797), is the largest living terrestrial mammals (Feldhamer, 2007) and a long-lived species with a relatively long period of over 60 years (Dunham, 1988) but few do. Females generally become sexually mature at between 10 and 14 years of age (Moss, 1990) and may calve until death. Average calving interval is usually between 4 and 6 years in an increasing population (Eltringham, 1982). African elephants are intelligent animals that live in structured, family-oriented hierarchical societies in which individuals (particularly females) have strong permanent bonds with related animals (Moss, 1988). In general, males show little allegiance towards their natal group, which they leave at an average age of 14 years (Lee, and Moss, 1999). But females stay with their mothers as long as they are both alive (Foley, 2001). This results in matriarchal groups with complex multitier relationships and various degrees of cohesion, depending on a number of social and environmental factors, and the degree of human threat (Kangwana, 1993). Such groups can comprise large numbers of animals that may span several generations of related individuals.

The African elephant (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach, 1797) belongs to the order Proboscidea and family Elephantidae. Elephants are both graceful and beautiful land mammals of aesthetic attraction to local and international tourists. They have major ecological effects on savanna dynamics, playing significant roles in nutrient cycling, seed dispersal, the provision of space, and as a result they are considered as keystone or flagship species (Owen-Smith, 1988; Shoshani et al., 2004). Despite their overall endangered status, extensive protected areas and effective control of poaching have led to the success of elephant conservation in Africa (Douglas- Hamilton, 1987). Continued increase of elephant populations may lead to a decrease in other species.

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©