Genotypes of Candida albicans from Stool Samples of HIV Sero Positive and HIV Negative Individuals in Nairobi, Kenya

Edinah Ongaga, Viviene Matiru, Wanjiru Wanyoike, Christine Bii


Candida albicans is one of the commonest opportunistic yeast pathogens that infect both healthy and immune-compromised individuals. Currently there are five recognized genotypes of C. albicans based on the 25 rDNA gene. Different genotypes of C. albicans have been shown to differ in their virulence and susceptibility to antifungal drugs and, thus accurate identification of the infecting genotype is essential for guiding antifungal therapy. The aim of the study was to determine the genotypes of C. albicans from stool samples of HIV sero positive and HIV negative individuals and ascertain whether there is an association between HIV status and genotype distribution. A total of forty four (44) Candida albicans isolates from the stool samples of 28 HIV sero positive patients attending an outpatient HIV/AIDS management clinic and 16 HIV negative individuals attending a hospitality industry support program at Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) were genotyped using PCR primer pairs that span the transposable intron region of the 25S rDNA. Genotype A C. albicans was the most prevalent type (61.4%) followed by genotype C (11.4%) and genotype B (4.5%). Genotype B C. albicans was not isolated from HIV negative individuals. There was no significant difference in the genotype distribution of C. albicans isolates from HIV sero positive and HIV negative individuals (p=0.304). Ten (22.7%) C. albicans isolates could not be genotyped using the transposable region primers an indication of possible new genotypes. Genotype A is the most predominant C. albicans isolate both in HIV sero positive and HIV negative individuals and there is no predilation of any genotype to HIV infected. There is a possibility of new genotypes of C. albicans and sequence analysis may be warranted.

Keywords: Genotypes, C. albicans, stool, HIV, Kenya.

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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