An Examination of the Challenges and Strategies of Adaptive Instruction in Junior High Schools in the Jirapa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana

Ebenezer Nabiebakye, Libanus Susan


Teachers are challenged to teach for all learners in the classroom to benefit. Teachers are tasked to adjust and modify the teaching and learning essentials to meet learners’ needs. The study examined the challenges and strategies of adaptive instruction in Junior High Schools in the Jirapa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana. The study used pragmatists’ philosophy, mixed method approach and Cross-sectional research design. Humanistic learning theory developed by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and James F. T. Bugental in the early 1960’s. Data for this study was gathered using interviews, observational protocol and questionnaires. A sample size of 80 learners, 10 headteachers and 0ne Municipal Education Training Officer were selected for the study using purposive sampling method. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis approach whilst the quantitative data was analysed using SPSS version 20. The findings revealed that: teachers were unable to use adaptive instruction effectively because some had inadequate adaptive expertise; time constraint; large class size; overloaded curriculum; multi-grade teaching and poor supervision. Also, on the strategies of responding to the challenges in the classroom, majority of the teachers claimed they used mixed ability grouping; ability grouping; collaborative learning; co-operative learning; inquiring based learning; microteaching; self-directed learning and task analysis approach as adaptive instructional strategies to teaching learners with varied learning needs. Unfortunately, in observing how teachers used the foregoing strategies, it was found that many did not use mixed and ability grouping as a strategy in teaching varied learners in the classroom. Amongst the various strategies, learners rated co-operative learning as the best form of learning strategy for responding to their learning differences.

Keywords: Adaptive Instruction, Classroom, Learning, Teaching

DOI: 10.7176/RHSS/12-20-03

Publication date:October 31st 2022

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484

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