Factors Affecting the Implementation of National Health Policy on Immunization Programme in Borno State, Nigeria

Shehu Mustapha Liberty, Paul Yalima Mbaya


The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to ensure universal immunization of children against childhood vaccine-preventable diseases. This is because more than 10 million children in developing countries die every year because they do not have access to effective interventions such as immunization that could fight common and preventable childhood illnesses. In view of the above situation, Nigeria started its Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1979 to prevent childhood illnesses through immunization. However, despite the concerted effort of government, routine immunization coverage in Nigeria according to USAID( 2009), is one of the lowest national coverage rates in the world with only 38% coverage. Similarly, Borno State has a population of 349,699 children of vaccination age, between 9-23 months and only half of the population were reached and like other states in the northeast region, Borno state has a poor uptake of vaccinations. The implication of this low coverage placed Borno State as one of the states with highest maternal mortality rates in Nigeria. This implies that there are fundamental factors affecting the full implementation of the programme in the state. It is against this background that this paper discussed some of these factors. The paper discovered that religion and cultural practices, corruption and mismanagement of resources and low health education on immunization have impacted negatively on immunization coverage. Similarly, poverty, poor health facilities, and inadequate health personnel have significantly affected the level of immunization in the state. The paper recommended that there should be value reorientation of the religious leaders and their followers through public enlightenment in media houses, conduct of seminars, workshops and conferences in order to enhance health education on child immunization

Keywords: Factors, Implementation, Policy, Immunization, Primary Health Care (PHC)

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484

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