Time – Course of Sodium Arsenate Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

John O. Fatoki, Gbadebo E. Adeleke, Jelili A. Badmus, Olusegun K. Afolabi, Olaniyi T. Adedosu, Samuel A. Kehinde, Adeniran S. Adekunle


Arsenic exposure has been implicated by several epidemiological studies as an important metalloid that is currently poisoning millions of people globally. In order to investigate the time – course of arsenic exposure on hepatic and renal toxicity, male albino rats (n=45) were exposed to arsenic (100 ppm, 150 ppm and 200 ppm) for 4, 8 and 12 weeks as sodium arsenate in their drinking water. Control animals (n=15) received distilled water for the same period after which blood and vital organs were removed from the animals and analyzed for alanine amino transaminase (ALT), aspartate amino transaminase (AST) gamma amino transaminase (γGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and urea spectrophotometrically. Histological changes in hepatocytes was also examined. Before the commencement of arsenic exposure, five animals were sacrificed to obtain baseline data. Significant elevation in plasma ALT, AST, γGT and alkaline phosphatase activities characterized the effect of the arsenical at all doses and time interval relative to the controls. Plasma levels of creatinine and urea were also elevated at all-time intervals in the arsenic group. In most of the cases observed, the elevated level of these biochemical marker in circulation are time – and dose – dose dependent. Hepatic histopathology reveals degeneration of cytoplasmic contents, evidence of necrosis, collapse of central vein, cytoplasmic inclusion and enlarged hepatic sinusoids in arsenic – exposed groups. These findings suggest that different dose regimens of sodium arsenate at different time interval caused degenerative changes in hepatic and renal tissues in rats in dose – and time – dependent fashion.

Keywords: Arsenic, Time – course, Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity

DOI: 10.7176/JNSR/9-4-09

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3186 ISSN (Online)2225-0921

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