Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral Analyses of the Leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. and Momordica charantia L.

Ayeni, M.J., Oyeyemi, S.D., Kayode, J., Peter, G. P.


The leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. and Momordica charantia L. were analysed for phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions. The qualitative phytochemical screening   from the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides whereas terpenoids and steroids were absent. Subsequent quantification analysis revealed that G. hirsutum contained 12.20± 0.28% alkaloids, 2.63±0.04 % saponins, 11.90±0.4 % flavonoids, 2.73 mg/100g tannins and 1.62±0.00 mg/100g total phenol. Momordica charantia contained 13.60±0.00 % alkaloids, 2.30±0.00 % saponins, 7.20±0.00 % flavonoids, 1.37±0.00 mg/100g tannins and 0.74 ±0.00mg/100g total phenol. Proximate analysis revealed that carbohydrate had the highest percentage in G. hirsutum and M. charantia (46.66±0.31% and 57.92± 0.04 % respectively). Crude protein had the lowest percentages of 2.70±0.01% and 2.46 ± 0.03% in G. hirsutum and M. charantia. Mineral analysis revealed that potassium had the highest concentration of 38.61 mg/100g in G. hirsutum and 32.84mg/100g in M. charantia. The least concentration of minerals in G. hirsutum was sodium (3.37mg/100g) while magnesium (5.88mg/100g) recorded the least concentration in M. charantia. The high carbohydrate contents in both plants might justify the potentials of the plants as good source of energy.

Keywords: Phytochemical, Gossypium hirsutum, Momordica charantia, Proximate, Mineral analyses.

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