Information Communication Technology Penetration and its Impact on Education: Lessons of Experience from Selected African Countries of Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda

Samuel Yaw Ampofo, Benjamin Bizimana, John Mbuthi, Irenee Ndayambaje, Norbert Ogeta, John Aluko Orodho


The study examined the extent of penetration of Computer and Internet as Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools and their potential positive impact   on educational institutions, individuals and societies at large. The study employed a mixed methods approach involving quantitative and qualitative approaches using secondary and primary data sources. The study was premised on the social cultural theory propounded by Vygotsky in the early 20th century which emphasizes the role of the society and interaction in learning and development process. This study focused on lessons of experience regarding the extent ICT has transformed education in Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. The study largely relied on secondary data available mainly in official websites, published documents like articles in journals and unpublished documents as well as primary data from interviews with leading educationists, researchers and policy makers in the Eastern  African Region. The findings in the three countries show the existence of political awareness and will to make ICT a transformative and economic tool.  Practically on the ground, educational institutions and their stakeholders have already embraced ICT and their actions are portrayed in the progressive efforts to avail required basic ICT infrastructure and future roadmaps of the targets to hit. It was also noted that Rwanda is taking the lead in the achievements in ICT. It was also evident that the three countries were experiencing nearly identical challenges ranging from inadequate funding to put in place appropriate tools and infrastructure   and low level of ownership and sustainability of ICT projects. The study recommended the punctual monitoring and evaluation of ICT projects; follow up and enforcement of policies and resolutions, synergize  all educational stakeholders’ efforts and expertise together as some of the  coping strategies with the highlighted barriers. Invariably,   countries should learn from one another in terms of achievement made and challenges to be overcome.[[293 words]

Key words: Information Communication Technology (ICT), ICT penetration, ICT in education, ICT impact, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda

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