Frequency and Anatomical Distribution of Pulmonary Embolism on CT Pulmonary Angiography

Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Zakir, Shahid Rasool, S Muhammad Yousaf Farooq, Jawad Ahmed, Wajahat Ali, Usman Ali, Haider Zaman, Rabia Ansar, Zain Abdul Khaliq


Background: Pulmonary embolism, with its growing prevalence, has become a potentially life-threatening medical condition with crucial symptoms. However, prognosis is good if timely diagnosis is made and to the level of segmental and sub segmental arteries as well. Standard computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is thus used to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism.

Objective: The primary objective of the current study was to determine and investigate the anatomical distribution frequency of pulmonary emboli, where segmental, sub segmental, and lobar arteries on CT pulmonary angiography are included.

Methodology: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, single-centered studies and CTPA scans of 98 patients were included. Data was obtained from Shalimar Hospital and University of Lahore – Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Sample size included patients of all age groups with suspected pulmonary embolism, with no differentiation of male or female samples.

Results: According to statistics and analysis, the current study results indicated the presence of pulmonary embolism in 36 patients and its absence in 62 patients. Results indicated that amongst the 98 patients scanned, the highest frequency of pulmonary emboli was found in the pulmonary trunk and lobar artery in 8 patients (8.2%). Furthermore, CTPA of the participants detected pulmonary emboli in segmental and sub-segmental arteries of 5 patients (5.1%), with another 2 patients showing pulmonary emboli in only the sub-segmental artery (2.0%). Another 2-2 patients showed pulmonary emboli in lobar and segmental artery and lobar, segmental and sub-segmental artery respectively (2.0%, 2.0%).

Conclusion: The largest number of pulmonary emboli were found in the pulmonary trunk, followed by emboli of segmental and lobar arteries in patients. It is concluded that CTPA evaluates pulmonary embolism with great precision and anatomical distribution localized main trunk, and pulmonary artery emboli along with lobar, segmental and sub-segmental artery emboli.

Keywords: Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA), pulmonary emboli, segmental artery, sub segmental artery, lobar arteries

DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/100-02

Publication date:May 31st 2022

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