Assessment of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Service Utilization and Associated Psychosocial Factors Among Secondary School Teachers in Nyando, Kisumu County Kenya: A Descriptive Cross Sectional Survey

James Ayugi, Jacob Owiti, Philip Opondo, Anthony Olashore, Keneilwe Molebatsi


Voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the key tools in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in Kenya. But utilization of VCT services among out secondary school teachers in Kenya is low. The aim of this study was to assess Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Service utilization and associated psychosocial factors among secondary school teachers since even though  most school-based HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa rely on teachers as behavior formation and behavior-change agents to deliver prevention messages to school children, their utilization of HIV VCT services has been low. The study sample consisted of 255 secondary school teachers (36% females and 64% males) out of a total of 753 teachers from 73 secondary schools in the seven divisions in Nyando district. Stratified sampling was used to select the number of schools per division to be included in the study while Simple random sampling was then used to select schools in each division. Self-administered questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to estimate the prevalence of VCT service utilization and to assess associated psychosocial factors among the secondary school teachers. Cross tabulation was used to show relationships between the independent and the dependent variables, and chi-square was used to test for existence of relationships between the variables, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Information from in-depth discussions was analyzed manually using qualitative methods. The data was presented descriptively and through the use of frequency tables and bar graphs. This study found that less than half (48%) of the respondents had utilized VCT services. The majority of teachers (38%), who had utilized the VCT services did so “in order to know their HIV status/plan their future”. The study also found a positive association between utilization of VCT services, and perception of the importance of VCT as an HIV/AIDS control strategy (p=0.039). Spousal approval of VCT utilization emerged as the most significant social factor affecting utilization of VCT services (p=0.019). HIV/VCT utilization among secondary school teachers in Nyando County remain low especially among male teachers. HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs among secondary school teachers in Nyando County should focus on the above areas.

Keywords: HIV testing, VCT utilization, Knowledge, Secondary school teachers, Nakuru Kenya.

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