A Comprehensive Review on Infectious Bursal Disease Which Has Serious Threat for Ethiopian Poultry Sector

Tesfa Mossie


The infectious bursal disease is an acute, highly contagious, and economically important immunosuppressive viral disease of growing chickens which is highly prevalent in most poultry producing regions of the world. The disease is caused by infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) which belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus, and in the family Birnaviridae. The genome of the virus contains two segments of double-stranded RNA which can encode important structural and nonstructural viral proteins. VP2 protein is the major antigen that stimulates host protective immune response and contains independent epitopes accountable for the induction of neutralizing antibodies in chickens. There are two distinct serotypes of the virus which is nominated as serotype 1 and 2. Only serotype 1virus is pathogenic in chickens while serotype 2 virus is nonpathogenic. IBD has become a major constraint in the poultry industry following the reemergence of IBDV in the form of antigenic variants that are responsible for a high mortality rate of young chickens. Following the introduction of the disease in Ethiopia, 45-50% mortality rate was recorded in 20-45 days old broilers and layer chickens. Regular outbreaks and the occurrence of novel strains of IBDV became a serious threat and challenge to the growing poultry sector in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review article gives updated /current scientific information on IBD virus concerning the pathogenesis, antigenic variants, epidemiology, and different diagnostic techniques to point out the control and prevention direction of the disease. To combile different research outcomes from various sites and the status of the disease in Ethiopia. Finally to highlight the economic significance in the young flourishing poultry industry in the country, and to draw recommendations for effective control and prevention measures.

Keywords: Bursa Fabricius, Infectious bursal disease, Chickens, immunosuppressive, vaccination, Ethiopia

DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/11-5-01

Publication date:March 31st 2021

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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