Review on Bovine Schistosomiasis with Due Emphasis on Its Epidemiology

Jalel Negero


Schistosomiasis is caused by different species of parasitic worms, called schistosomes. It is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) of profound medical and veterinary importance. As many as 10 different species of schistosomes have been reported to naturally infect cattle; six have received particular attention mainly because of their recognized veterinary significance. The geographical distribution of schistosoma species infecting cattle are mainly determined by the distribution of their respective intermediate host snails, level of infection and the frequency of water contacts. Epidemiological studies conducted on bovine schistosomiasis are suggestive of the endemicity of the disease in Ethiopia particularly in the area with large permanent water bodies and marsh pasture areas of the country. Most infections in endemic areas occur at a subclinical level. However, it has been established that high level of prevalence of subclinical infections cause significant losses due to long-term effects on animal growth and productivity and increased susceptibility to other diseases. Snail hosts favor intensive transmission of Schistosomiasis and the infection rate of the disease are mainly affected by host related factors, anthropogenic/ human factors like poorly designed irrigation projects, management and seasonal factors. Diagnosis is based primarily on the clinico-pathological picture, parasitological techniques and post mortem findings. The most effective way to control cattle schistosomiasis in endemic areas is to prevent contact between the animals and the parasite. Awareness creation about the disease, destruction of the snail intermediate host population at their breeding sites, either by chemical or biological methods may be considered as a recommendation to prevent the occurrence of bovine schistosomiasis.

Keywords: Bovine, Epidemiology, Risk factors

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

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