Degradation of Agroresiduces with Value Added Products by Solid State Fermentation with Calocybe Indica



Mushrooms are biotechnological produced food products from ligninocellulosic, the economic value of these has expanded all over world in the last two decades.

The utilization of the insoluble lignocellulosic substrates by edible mushrooms depends upon the production of a wide array of lignocelllulolytic enzymes cellulose, hemicellulose, ligninase by the fungal mycelium which is a crucial part of the colonization process and is an important determinant of mushroom yield. Therefore, to exploit the potential of locally in vitro studies were carried out on the effect of supplementation on mycelial growth and enzymes production of Calocybe indica during solid state fermentation of wheat straw. (Shammi kapoor et al., 2009).

The cultivation of edible mushroom is a prime example of how low-value waste which is produced primarily through the activities can be converted to a higher value commodity useful to mankind.

India is blessed with varied agroclimate, abundance of agricultural wastes and manpower making it most suitable for the cultivation of all the types of temperate, subtropical and tropical mushrooms (FAO, 1997).

Lignocelluloses wastes (LCW) refer to plant biomass wastes that composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Lignin degradation by white rot fungi has been extensively studied.

The huge amounts of residual plant biomass considerable as “waste” can potentially be converted into various different value added products including biofules, chemicals cheep energy source for fermentation improved animal feeds and human materials (Howard et al., 2003).

A number of agro industrial residues are thrown away as wastes or under utilized; more than half of the total production of plant residues mainly straw, leaves and forest wastes remain unused. The waste materials are partially burnt or disposed on land and composed (Kirk and Moore, 1972; Zadrazil, 1977, 1980). Some of the agricultural wastes are used as animal feed and raw materials in industries. One of the useful outlets for these raw materials is to utilize them as a substrate for growing edible mushroom which are in great demand in India.

Ligninolytic enzymes are primarily involved in lignin degradation in oxidative reactions that are mainly free radical driven in the presence (or sometimes absence) of mediators. The main enzymes involved are lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase (Hao et al., 2006; Mtui and Nakamura, 2007, 2008; Mtui and Masalu, 2008).

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues. Biodevelopment of biowastes provide a wide range of affordable renewable value-added products from LCW (Pandey et al., 2000; vanWyk, 2001; Howard et al., 2003).

Lignocellulosic enzymes, mainly from fungi and bacteria, are important commercial products of LCW bioprocessing used in many industrial applications including chemicals, fuel, food brewery and wine, animal feed, textile and laundey, pulp and paper and agricultural (Howard et al., 2003).

The benefits of using waste residues as lignocellulosic feedstocks will be to introduce a sustainable solid waste management strategy for a number of lignocellulosic waste materials; contribute to the mitigation in greenhouse gases through sustained carbon and nutrient recycling; reduce the potential for water, air and soil contamination associated to broaden the feedstock source of raw materials for the bio-ethanol production industry (Champagne, 2007).

The current supplies from LCW based oil crops and animal fats account for only approximately 0.3%, biodiesel from algae is widely regarded as one of the most efficient ways of generation biofuels and also appears to represent the only current renewable source of oil that could meet the global demand for transport fuels (Schenk et al., 2008).

Biohydrogen production from agricultural residues such as olive husk pyrolysis (Ca lar and Demirba, 2002); conversion of wheat straw wastes into biohydrogen gas by cow dung compost (Fan et al., 2006); bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production (Singh et al., 2007) generate up to 70.6% gas yields. System optimization for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems to be the ideal option for clean energy generation. Hydrogen generation from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen and achieve zero net greenhouse emissions (Zhang et al., 2007).

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN (Paper)2224-3208 ISSN (Online)2225-093X

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©