Religious Extremism in Pakistan: A New persepective based on TPB and TRA Model

Ali Khan Ghumro, Fiza Qureshi, Pervaiz Ali Mahesar


Pakistan is situated at the crossroads of Central Asia, Middle East and West Asia. Given this geopolitical standing, Pakistan has often remained in the eye of a storm. The ship of the state has drifted into perilous waters. The Iranian Revolution, Post-Cold War era, Zia’s Islamization agenda, coupled with the cataclysm of Nine Eleven has pushed Pakistan into uncharted waters. This study investigates the determinants of extremism in Pakistan, by reviewing the extant literature and drawing conclusion based on theories i.e, Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). In order to achieve this objective, this article adopts the qualitative methods by applying the secondary sources of data collection. The study finds that religious education, political bondage, economic deprivation, social transformation towards sectarian divisions could be factors behind the rising tide of extremism in Pakistan. These findings are also supported by TRA and TPB theories. Further, this article suggests that the de-radicalization policy, religious education reforms, judiciary power, poverty eradication, political will besides political stability in the country can help to deal with the problem of religious extremism in Pakistan.

Key words: Religious extremism, Radicalization, Economic Deprivation, Political Bondage and Sectarianism

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