Cyber Victimization by Hackers: A Criminological Analysis

Damian Odunze


The pervasiveness of the World Wide Web (internet) with the easy flow of information means that there is no more privacy once an individual goes online whether to transact business or connect with friends. Any information put online leaves an electronic trail that can be used by internet criminals, such as hackers.  The recent hacking of nude pictures of more than 100 Hollywood actresses due to an iCloud leak and other cases of romance and extortion scams targeting mainly women raises a digital dilemma. This paper, using an online survey of internet users, examines whether hackers target users based on their gender. Differential association theory and routine activity perspectives are utilized to explain this new form of criminological problem. Recommendations for guarding against cyber-attacks, suggestions for future research and policy implications are also discussed.

Keywords:cybercrime, hacking, victimization, gender, routine activity, differential association

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN (Paper)2224-5731 ISSN (Online)2225-0972

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©