Application of Liability Principle in the National Criminal Law



In criminal law, the measure that determines a person can be held accountable for his criminal action is seen from the person's responsible ability. Only those who are "capable of responsibility" can be called for criminal responsibility (punished). Responsibility is based on a person's circumstances and ability (Versdelijke Vermogens) (E.Y. Kanter and S.R. Sianturi, 2002, 244).

Criminal liability is a reaction to the crime and wrongdoing, so that the birth of criminal responsibility is based on the error and the principle of legality. Therefore, in order to be criminally accountable the act must meet several criteria such as misunderstanding, absence of forgiveness, and the responsible ability of the perpetrators of criminal acts, so that in a criminal act which becomes an important issue to be noticed and proven are: (1) is the existence of an external act as the incarnation of the will (actus reus), (2) is the condition of the soul, evil attitude or bad faith that underlies the action (Mens Rea) (I Made Widnyana, 2010.58-59).

In the context of criminal accountability, many experts claim that mistakes are central to criminal responsibility, so Utrecht states that criminal liability or criminal misconduct (schuld in ruimte zin) consists of three elements, includes the responsible ability (toerekeningsvatbaarheid) of the maker, a psychological attitude of the maker due to his behavior, namely Intentional behavior (deliberate element), and Behavior is less careful or neglectful (aspal negligence) or culpa (schuld in enge zin), and there are no grounds that eliminate the criminal responsibility of the maker (anasir toerekeningsvatbaarheid) (E. Utrecht E., 1966).

In its development, criminal responsibility has an extension of meaning so that it is known for several terms namely absolute accountability and substitute accountability. The widespread concept of criminal liability begins with the increase of the subject of law in criminal law, which originally the subject of criminal law refers only to the individual (person) but extends and receives the corporation as a legal subject in the criminal law. This fact shows that errors, crimes and crimes are committed not only by individuals, but in the broad sense of the crime, crime and crime can also be committed by a corporation even if in essence the corporation is used as a medium by individuals committing a crime or a crime.

Widespread concept of criminal liability is also caused by several factors such as the existence of criminal responsibility for the actions done by others even though the act against the law is not his fault. It is known as liability for wrongs committed by others or vicariuos liability.

Based on the above view, that the birth of a criminal liability as a basis for legitimizing sanctions is a mistake. However, the principle of unlawful criminal accountability is also known in criminal law, that a person should be held accountable when a loss arises from the existence of an error, so that the error factor is no longer an element to be proved for criminal liability. The concept of unlawful criminal liability is usually imposed in the case of traffic accidents. Referring to the background writing of the problem as described above, then the problem that arises is how to leverage the principle liability in national criminal law.

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