Baringo apis Bee Honey: Nutritional, Physicochemical, Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties Validation Against Wound Bacterial Isolates

Miriam Wanjiru Mwangi, Eric Omori Omwenga, Tabitha W. Wanjau


Skin wounds are a global public health concern demanding significant resources from the healthcare system. Their consequences include pain, social, physical or psychological impact. Hence the right approach to its management should be considered. This is towards reducing the economic burden while lowering morbidity and mortality through developing new preventive and therapeutic technologies.Bee (Apis) honey samples were collected from their beehives in Marigat Sub County, Baringo County, Kenya, followed by quantitative analysis of physicochemical, nutritive, phytochemical and antioxidant properties contributing to its antibacterial capacity. Different concentrations of honey (10x104, 20x104, 50x104 and 75x104 µg/ml)) in impregnated discs were tested against each type of clinical isolates obtained from wound swabs collected from Nakuru County Referral Hospital Nakuru, as indicated in the previous study on Stingless bee honey analysis. The bacterial isolates obtained included; Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Their individual antibacterial inhibition was then compared to cartridges containing antibiotics (Levofloxacin 5μg, Ampicillin 10μg, Tazobactam 110 μg, Meropenem 10μg, Gentamicin 10μg and Chloramphenicol 30μg) through disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) technique.According to this study, quantitative analysis of the honey samples yielded 90.13 ± 5.76g/100g, 4.07 ± 0.08 and 114.28 ± 26.66 mg/g in sugar, pH and moisture, respectively. The phenolic compounds that act as antioxidants were in the mean value of total phenolic compounds (80.81 ± 36.25mgGAE/100g), total flavonoids (21.83 ± 6.16 mg RE/100g) and total carotenoids (4.41 ± 2.07 mgβ –carotene/kg). These and other components contributed to the honey's antibacterial inhibition with a mean range of 14.54 ± 2.0mm to 17.58 ± 3mm, which was relatively higher than the antibiotics used (Gentamycin, Levofloxacin, Ampicillin, Tazobactum, Meropenem and Chloramphenicol). Control bacterial isolates ATCC 25923, ATCC 25922, ATCC 27736 and ATCC 27858 for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, enhanced the standard in the analysis. The potency of honey from different botanical sources reveals important antimicrobial differences comparable to local antibiotics.Over and indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, a global public health problem. Alternative antimicrobial strategies like plants and plant-based products such as honey need to be given more attention to solving this challenge. Hence the present study demonstrates that the composition of honey from honey bees (Apis) enables it to be proposed for prophylaxis and treatment of surface infections, which has traditionally been practiced in the management of wounds and burns.

DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/105-01

Publication date: January 31st 2023

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