Socio-Demographic, Nutritional and Adherence as Determinants of Nevirapine Plasma Concentration among HIV-1 Patients from Two Geographically Defined Regions of Kenya

Mungiria Juster, Lucy Gitonga, Moses Muraya, John Mwaniki, Musa Otieno Ngayo


Background: Data are skewed on the role of Socio-demographic, nutritional and adherence related factors on the influence of nevirapine plasma concentrations among Kenyan population. This study rigorously determined these three factors on nevirapine plasma concentrations among HIV patients receiving HIV treatment in two regions known for high prevalence of HIV and long duration of ART uptake.Methods: Blood samples were collected from 377 consenting HIV adult patients receiving an NVP-based first-line ART regimen. A detailed sociodemographic questionnaire was administered. NVP plasma concentration was measured by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: The majority (59.2%) of the patients were female, 72.2% were from western Kenya (predominantly Nilotic speaking community). The patients’ mean age was 41.6 (SD ± 11.5) years and the mean duration of ART was 5.1 (SD ± 4.8) years. The median BMI of the patients was 25 kg/m2 (IQR = 22.2 - 28.7 kg/m2). The majority 81.2% were receiving 3TC/NVP/TDF ART regimen, 30% had changed their initial ART regimen with 54.4% reporting missing taking current ARVs. Overall NVP plasma levels ranged from 4-44207 ng/mL (median 6213 ng/mL, IQR 3097–8606.5 ng/mL). There were 105 (25.5%) participants with NVP levels of <3100 ng/mL, associated with poor viral suppression. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed region of origin (adjusted β 976, 95% CI, 183.2 to 1768.82; p = 0.016), gender (adjusted β 670, 95% CI, 293.6 to 1634.2; p = 0.047), education level (adjusted β -39.0779, 95% CI, -39.07 to 1085.7; p = 0.068), initial ART regimen type (adjusted β = -548.1, 95% C = -904.2 to -192; p =0.003) and ARV uptake in the past 30 days (adjusted β = -1109, 95% C = -2135 to -83; p =0.034) remained independently associated with NVP plasma levels.Conclusion: NVP plasma concentration is highly heterogenous among Kenyan population with a significant proportion of patients reporting levels of <3100 ng/ml, correlated with poor viral suppression. The host pharmacoecologic factors, such as gender, age, weight, education level, region of origin (ethnicity), ART regimen type and adherence, are key in influencing NVP plasma concentration. Taking these factors into consideration, HIV treatment may be personalized to achieve optimal treatment success.

Keywords: Nevirapine plasma concentration, host pharmacoecologic factors, HIV-1 patients in Kenya

DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/81-05

Publication date:October 31st 2020

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN 2422-8419

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©