Sonographic Incidence and Characteristics of Thyroid Nodules in Various Age Groups and Gender

Rabia Parveen, Raham Bacha, S Muhammad Yousaf Farooq, Muhammad Iqrar, Asghar khan, Laila Ameer, Saira Shakoor, Sehar Shahbaz


Background: Thyroid nodules (TNs) are among the common diseases of the endocrine system, with 3%–7% prevalence by palpation. The prevalence by high-resolution ultrasonography among randomly selected individuals is 19%–67%, with annual increasing trends worldwide. 5% to 15% of TNs is thyroid cancer, which has become the fastest growing cancer.1 Ultrasonography has become an indispensable tool in the evaluation of thyroid nodular disease, and most patients will have had a thyroid ultrasound prior to initial surgical evaluation.9 Objective: To characterize thyroid nodules in various age groups and gender.  Methodology: In this descriptive study, among 179 patients of thyroid nodule were selected with age and gender discrimination by convenient sampling, at Department of Radiology, Lahore General hospital and Inmol Cancer hospital Lahore. Mindray Z5 and Toshiba xario 100 with linear probe of 7.5-11MHz ultrasound machine was used. Results: Out of 179 collected, 105 were females and 74 were males who visited radiology department due to thyroid nodule. It shows 58.7% females and 41.3% males patients diagnosed. Out of 179 patients 106 patients 59.2% came with irregular margins thyroid nodules and remaining 73 patients 40.8% had thyroid nodules with regular margins. 127 patients 70.9% had hyperechoic thyroid nodules and 52 patients 29.1% had hypoechoic thyroid nodules. Out of 97 patients 54.2% developed (Multi Nodular Goiter) MNG, 66 patients 36.9% developed right thyroid nodules and 16 patients 8.9% developed left thyroid nodules. Females developed 56.2% MNG, 33.3% right thyroid nodule and 10.5% left thyroid nodule while males developed 51.4% MNG, 41.9% right thyroid nodule and 6.8% left thyroid nodule. Out of 179 patients 109 (60.9%) patients shows no perfusion of blood while remaining 70 (30.1%) shows some perfusion of blood on USG. Minimum age was 5 years and maximum were 90 years while their mean was 43. Age group between 41 to 50 years most likely develop thyroid nodules.  Conclusion: In this study we conclude that females most likely develop thyroid nodules than males.  Both males and females mostly develop multi nodular goiter and least develop left thyroid nodule. Patients in 4th decade most likely develop thyroid nodules.

Key words: Thyroid nodules, Ultrasonography

DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/80-15

Publication date:September 30th 2020

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