Maternal Risk Factors and Birth Defects in Kirkuk City/Iraq

Jenan Akbar Shakoor


Background: Birth defects can be defined as those conditions that occur before or during birth. The purpose of this study was to find out the association between some maternal factors and birth defects, as well as to identify the socio-demographical characteristics of the child and the mother in Kirkuk city. Methodology:  A non-probability, descriptive (convenient) sampling technique was used to select (60) children that attending visits to two locations (Azadi Teaching Hospitals and Kirkuk Rehabilitation Center) in Kirkuk city from the period November 11th 2015 to May 5th 2016. The children age ranged from birth to 12 years old. An interview questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and chi-square. (p≤0.05) was considered statistically significant. Birth defects were grouped into cerebral palsy (CP), Erb’s palsy (EP) and Spina bifida (SB). Results: A total of 60 children were included. Of these 40 (66.7%)had cerebral palsy, 13 (21.7%) had Erb’s palsy and 7 (11.7%) had spina bifida. A significant association was found between some maternal risk factors, such as birth weight, maternal age at delivery, type of delivery, gravida, and birth defects. Conclusions and Recommendations: Some maternal factors can play a role in birth defects. Women need to attend antenatal care centers regularly to identify any abnormality. Further studies with larger samples are needed in the city of Kirkuk.

Keywords: Birth defect, Risk factor, Maternal, Congenital malformation

Full Text: PDF ()
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN 2422-8419

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©