Determinants of Diabetic Knowledge and Self-Efficacy and Their Associations with Diabetic Management in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Mona H. Afifi


BACKGROUND: Diabetic management and education are inadequate in Saudi Arabia. Diabetic knowledge and self-efficacy are believed to mediate the impact of diabetic education. The objective was to examine the association of diabetic knowledge and self-efficacy and their associations with diabetic self-management behaviors and control outcomes.  METHOD: A cross-sectional study among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving care at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. Patients were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire covering sociodemographics, knowledge (29 questions), self-efficacy (16 questions), and diabetic self-management behaviors and outcomes. Scores corrected to 100-point scale for both knowledge and self-efficacy were calculated. Glycemic control has been abstracted from the patient chart. RESULTS: A total 160 patients gave consent and completed the study. Patients were 56.2% females with an average age of 49.9±14.7 years. The overall average (±SD) knowledge and self-efficacy scores were 65.4%±16.4% and 57.9±17.1%. There was a significant moderate positive correlation between overall knowledge and self-efficacy scores (r=0.486, p<0.001). Both knowledge and self-efficacy scores were associated with better self-monitoring of blood glucose, frequent checkup, controlled 2-hour blood glucose level, adherence to diabetic medications, appropriate diabetic diet, and doing regular exercise. CONCLUSION: The levels of knowledge and self-efficacy scores were moderate among a sample of Saudi patients with T2D. The current findings show the positive impact of and the need to better improve knowledge and self-efficacy among Saudi patients with T2D. Diabetic education offered to patients with T2D should focus more on self-efficacy.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, self-efficacy, knowledge, management, Saudi Arabia

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