Mathematical Theory and Modeling
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM
<p><span id="internal-source-marker_0.04939836589619517"><span id="internal-source-marker_0.04939836589619517">Mathematical Theory and Modeling </span>is a peer reviewed journal published by IISTE. The journal publishes original papers at the forefront of mathematical theories, modelings, and applications. The journal is published in both printed and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</span></p><p><span>IISTE is member of <a href="http://www.crossref.org/01company/17crossref_members.html">CrossRef</a>.<br /></span></p>en-USMathematical Theory and Modeling2224-5804A Bayesian Model for Predicting Road Traffic Fatalities in Ghana
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14393
<p>Bayesian model for predicting the annual regional distribution of the number of road traffic fatalities in Ghana is derived, using road traffic accident statistics data from the National Road Safety Commission, Ghana Statistical Service and Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority. The data span 1991 to 2009. Since the parameters are assumed to vary across the various regions, they are considered to be random variables with probability distributions. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling techniques were used to draw samples from each of the posterior distribution, thereby determining the values of the unknown parameters for each region based on a given data.</p> <p>The study has shown that population and number of registered vehicles are predominant factors affecting road traffic fatalities in Ghana. The effect of other additional factors on road traffic fatality such as human error (due to the driver, passenger and/or pedestrian), vehicle (its condition and maintenance), environmental/weather and nature of the road cannot be ruled out.<strong> </strong></p> <p> </p>Christian A. HesseJohn B. OfosuFrancis T. Oduro4Adjoint Operator in Probabilistic Hilbert Space
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14394
<p><strong>Abstract:</strong><strong> </strong>The purpose of this paper is to give a definition for the adjoint operator in Probabilistic Hilbert Space and its properties by using Riesz Representation Theorem.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Probabilistic Hilbert Space; Adjoint Operator;<strong> </strong>properties of adjoint operator.</p>Radhi I.MDalia Sami Ali4A Multi-Stage Supply Chain Network Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14395
<p>In today's global business market place, individual firms no longer compete as independent entities with unique brand names but as integral part of supply chain links. Key to success of any business is satisfying customer's demands on time which may result in cost reductions and increase in service level.<br /> In supply chain networks decisions are made with uncertainty about product's demands, costs, prices, lead times, quality in a competitive and collaborative environment. If poor decisions are made, they may lead to excess inventories that are costly or to insufficient inventory that cannot meet customer's demands.</p> <p>In this work we developed a bi-objective model that minimizes system wide costs of the supply chain and delays on delivery of products to distribution centers for a three echelon supply chain. Picking a set of Pareto front for multi-objective optimization problems require robust and efficient methods that can search an entire space. We used evolutionary algorithms to find the set of Pareto fronts which have proved to be effective in finding the entire set of Pareto fronts.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> multi-objective optimization, Pareto fronts, evolutionary algorithms, supply chain networks, echelon.</p>Nelson Christopher DzupireYaw Nkansah-Gyekye4Time Series Forecasting of Solid Waste Generation in Arusha City - Tanzania
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14396
<p>Statistical time series modeling is widely used in prediction and forecasting studies. This study intends to analyze, compare and select the best time series model for forecasting amount of solid waste generation for the next years in Arusha city - Tanzania among ARMA/ARIMA and Exponential Smoothing models. The past data used are monthly amount of solid waste collected by the city authorities from year 2008 to 2013. The result indicated that ARIMA (1, 1, 1) outperformed other potential models in terms of MAPE, MAD and RMSE measures and hence used to forecast the amount of the solid waste generation for the next years.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>ARIMA models, Exponential Smoothing models, time series, MAPE, MAD, RMSE</p>Amon MwendaDmitry KuznetsovSilas Mirau4Conditional Expectation on Extended Positive Part of Crossed Product of a Von Neumann Algebra
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14397
<p>We extend the notion of conditional expectation onto the set of generalised positive operators ( the extended positive part) of crossed product of a von Neumann algebra.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong> conditional expectation, generalised positive operators, crossed product</p>Yusuf Auwalu BichiShehu Abdulazeez4Modeling the Impact of Immunization on the Epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus.
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14398
<p>Chickenpox (also called varicella) is a disease caused by virus known as varicella-zoster virus (VZV) also known as human herpes virus 3. In this paper, a deterministic mathematical model for transmission dynamics of VZV with vaccination is formulated. The effective reproduction number is computed in order to measure the relative impact for individual or combined intervention for effective disease control. Numerical simulations of the basic reproduction number of the model shows that, the combination of vaccination and treatment is the most effective way to combat the epidemiology of VZV in the community.</p> <p><strong> Keywords: </strong>Modeling, Treatment, Vaccination, Epidemiology</p>Stephen EdwardDmitry KuznetsovSilas Mirau4Modelling of the Spread of Rabies with Pre-Exposure Vaccination of Humans
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14399
<p>Apart from the quest to save human lives, it is also of paramount interest to curtail the spread of rabies in human population. The control of rabies in animals is usually handled either through culling or vaccination of the animal population. Consequently, the possibility of transmitting this disease or virus to healthy animals is drastically reduced. Radies is deadly, and its treatment or control in infected animals is often done successfully during the incubation period before the occurence of symptoms. Thus, the need for pre-exposure vaccination cannot be over emphasized. This paper developed a mathematical model, from that of Zhang <em>et al</em>. which was based on the transmission dynamics and control of rabies in China, to explore the need for pre-exposure vaccination of humans and its impact on the spread of rabies from dogs to humans. The study employed an SEIRS model which consists of both dog and human population.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rabies, Pre-exposure vaccination, Mathematical model, Dogs, Humans</p>Grace Omeche Agaba4Effect of couple stress fluid on MHD peristaltic motion and heat transfer with partial slip in an inclined asymmetric channel
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14400
<p class="BodyTextNotComplexBold">In this investigation we have analyzed the effect of variable couple stress fluid on the peristaltic flow of non-Newtonian fluid in an inclined asymmetric channel . The relevant equations have been modeled. Analysis has been carried out in the presence of velocity and thermal slip conditions. Expressions for stream function, temperature, pressure gradient and heat transfer coefficients are derived. Numerical integration has been performed for pressure rise per wavelength. Plots are presented and analyzed for various embedded parameters into the problem. This study is done through drawing many graphs by using the MATHEMATICA package.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Heat transfer ,Non - Newtonian fluid, Couple stress, magnetic field, Partial slip, inclined..</p>Ghusoon G. mhammadAhmed M. Abdulhadi4Common Random Fixed Point Theorems of Contractions in Partial Cone Metric Spaces over Non normal Cones
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14401
<p class="Default">The purpose of this paper is to prove existence of common random fixed point in the setting of partial cone metric space over the non-normal cones.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Key wards</strong>: common fixed point,cone metric space, random variable</p>PIYUSH M. PATELRAMAKANT BhardwajSabhakant Dwivedi4Modeling a Small Scale Business Outfit With M/M/1 Markovian Queuing Process and Revenue Analysis
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14402
<p>This article presents a queuing model on the operation of a small business which are often visited with a lot of set- backs and uncertainties. Probability models were derived for two system characteristics namely the customers' inter-arrival rate (I<sub>t</sub>), the service time per customer (Y<sub>t</sub>), and the Service charge (C<sub>t</sub>) per customer was also recorded. This data collected were subjected to single factor analysis of variance with fixed effect to confirm whether the data came from the same population distribution. However it was observed that the inter-arrival time for the customers was exponential, service rate also exponential..............</p>Nwankwo, Steve .C.4Strongly Rickart Rings
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14403
<p>Let R be a ring with identity. In this paper we introduce a<em> strongly Rickart</em> ring as a stronger concept of a Rickart ring. A ring R is said to be strongly Rickart ring if the right annihilators of each single element in R is generated by a left semicentral idempotent in R. This class of rings is proper class in right Rickart rings, p.q.-Baer rings, reduced rings and semiprime rings. The relation between strongly Rickart and strongly regular are studied. We discuss some types of extension of strongly Rickart ring such as the Dorroh extension and the idealization ring.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> strongly Rickart ring, Rickart ring, right annihilator element, semicentral idempotent element, Dorroh extension, idealization of a module.</p>Saad Abdulkadhim Al-SaadiTamadher Arif Ibrahiem4A note on Bayesian One-Way Repeated Measurements Model
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14404
<p>In this paper, we consider the linear one- way repeated measurements model which has only one within units factor and one between units factor incorporating univariate random effects as well as the experimental error term. Bayesian approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo is employed to making inferences on the one- way repeated measurements model. <strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Repeated Measurements, ANOVA, Bayesian inference, Prior density, posterior density, Bayes factor.</p>Ameera Jaber MohaisenKhawla Abdul Razzaq Swadi4Analysing The Major Effects Of Exports And Imports On The Balance Of Foreign Trade In Ghana
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14405
<p>This paper presents analysing the major effects of exports and imports on the balance of foreign trade in Ghana. The study made used of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis to find out which export and import commodities have significant effects on the balance of foreign trade in Ghana. The sampling test conducted using the Mineigen criteria of 0.25 in absolute values. Data was sought from Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) trade statistics division. The data was divided into three groups, food, textile and manufacturing. The analysis shows that, the first group which is food, cocoa beans has significant effect on balance of trade on exports while rice has effect on imports. For the second group which is textile, kente also has significant effect on exports and boxes on imports for balance of trade in Ghana. The final group is manufacturing has monetary gold and aluminum sheet having effect on exports while that of buckets, shovels and gribs of machines have effect on imports of balance of trade in Ghana. The gap between exports and imports with regard to food commodities is closing especially export while that of manufacturing commodities is increasing. In this paper the balance of trade considered goods only.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Principal Component (PCA), Stepwise Regression Analysis, Multiple Linear</p> <p>Regressions Analysis, ANOVA</p>Yakubu Dekongmene KanyiriRichard Kodzo AvuglahEmmanuel Harris4Mathematical Formulation Model for a School Bus Routing Problem with Small Instance Data
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14406
<p>This paper aims to describe the mathematical formulation model and an exact optimal solution analyses for a school bus routing problem with small instance data. The formulated model has been used to compute the optimal solution of time spent by students at all bus stops, apart from that the bus stops are not necessary be linearly ordered. We also listed down five procedures of mathematical formulation model to reach an exact optimal solution for a school bus routing problem with small instance data. We assume that each bus has fixed pick up points, these generates the many possible routes for a bus, the number of routes that generated is equal to permutation of pick up points, for each route of a bus we computing the objective function and the route with smallest objective function value can be optimal route of a bus. The sample data from two schools located at Dar es Salaam are collected and validated in the model to shows the good performing of that model. The optimal solution results obtained shows that the students spent minimal minutes in new planned routes compared to current routes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>bus stop, students, buses, optimal value, optimal solution, set, pick up.</p>Denis M. ManumbuEgbert MujuniDmitry Kuznetsov4Analytical approximate solutions for linear and nonlinear Volterra integral and integrodifferential equations and some applications for the Lane-Emden equations using a power series method
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14407
In the present paper, we have presented a recursive method namely the Power Series Method (PSM)to solve first the linear and nonlinear Volterra integral and integro-differential equations. The PSM isemployed then to solve resulting equations of the nonlinear Volterra integral and integro-differentialforms of the Lane-Emden equations. The Volterra integral and integro-differential equations formsof the Lane-Emden equation overcome the singular behavior at the origin x = 0. Some examplesare solved and different cases of the Lane-Emden equations of first kind are presented. The resultsdemonstrate that the method has many merits such as being derivative-free, and overcoming thedifficulty arising in calculating Adomian polynomials to handle the nonlinear terms in Adomian DecompositionMethod (ADM). It does not require to calculate Lagrange multiplier as in VariationalIteration Method (VIM) and no need to construct a homotopy as in Homotopy Perturbation Method(HPM). The results prove that the present method is very effective and simple and does not requireany restrictive assumptions for nonlinear terms. The software used for the calculations in this studywas MATHEMATICA.M. A. AL-JawaryH. R. AL-Qaissy4Screening of New strains of sugarcane using Augmented Block Designs
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/14408
<p>Sugar production has over time experienced a number of challenges, that is, the choice of the variety to plant; soil nutrients variation and market competition amongst others have greatly affected sugar production. This study has effectively and efficiently employed the technique of experimental designs to ascertain family selection by comparing Augmented Block designs and Randomized Complete block designs. The augmented block design is widely used in breeding programs, particularly in screening and selection of large number of germplasm lines with non-replicated test treatments and replicated control treatments to estimate the experimental errors. The study establishes a relationship between augmented block designs in screening and completely randomized block design in screening new strains of Sugarcane. In the two designs analyzed, we consider 5 test treatments and 2 control treatments for augment design and the same number of treatments for Randomized Complete Block Design. In the event of screening new sugarcane varieties, attempts have been made to find the effectiveness of augmented block designs and completely randomized block designs in test families and control checks where the results reveal that Augmented Block Design is 11.86 times more efficient than a Randomised Block Design. In the conclusion of this study we have shown that Augmented Block Design is better suited when the plots are limited and Randomized Complete Block Design is better suited when treatments are many.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Augmented Block Design, Balanced incomplete block design, Randomized complete Block Design, Latin Square, Unreduced BIB Design.</p>Otulo Wandera CyrilusOjung’a Okoth SamsonOtumba Edgar Ouko4