Mathematical Theory and Modeling
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM
<p><span id="internal-source-marker_0.04939836589619517"><span id="internal-source-marker_0.04939836589619517">Mathematical Theory and Modeling </span>is a peer reviewed journal published by IISTE. The journal publishes original papers at the forefront of mathematical theories, modelings, and applications. The journal is published in both printed and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</span></p><p><span>IISTE is member of <a href="http://www.crossref.org/01company/17crossref_members.html">CrossRef</a>.<br /></span></p>en-USMathematical Theory and Modeling2224-5804Stability of convergence theorems of the Noor iteration method for an enumerable class of continuous hemi contractive mapping in Banach spaces
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25399
<p>The purpose of this is to study the Noor iteration process for the sequence converges to a common fix point for enumerable class of continuous hemi contractive mapping in Banach spaces.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Stability, Noor iterations, Hemicontractive mapping, Convergence theorem Continuous pseudocontractive mapping.</p> <p><strong>2000 Mathematics Subject Classification:</strong> 47J25, 47H10, 54H25</p>Akanksha SharmaKalpana SaxenaNamrata Tripathi5Bio-Mathematics- a Special Reference To Matrices
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25400
<p>Mathematics is one of the oldest organized disciplines of human knowledge with a continuous line of development spanning 5000 years or more. It originated from human curiosity and is an endless enterprise.</p> <p> </p> <p>Mathematics is known as the “Queen of all Sciences’ as it provides solution techniques & increases the potentials of other disciplines like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc. In this era of scientific, industrial and I.T revolution, due attention to mathematics is essential for the progress of the world.</p> <p> </p> <p>Mathematics permeates biology. However mathematics in biology is appreciated only when biologists start reading & doing research. Even today there are only a few mathematicians who are knowledgeable in biology & very few biologists know mathematics.</p> <p> </p> <p>Mathematical biology is emerging very rapidly for today traditional academic boundaries require interdisciplinary approaches. Biological concepts and models are becoming more quantitative. For a progressive and fruitful research career in biology one must have requisite knowledge of biology, mathematics, and computer science. A conscious effort to learn the necessary mathematics via biological applications is the need of the hour.</p> <p> </p> <p>Mathematical biology is an interdisciplinary scientific research field with a range of mathematical applications in biology, biotechnology, medicine etc.; Matrices, Linear algebra, Abstract algebra, Calculus, Differential equations, Graph theory, Statistics, Probability, Operations Research are some areas of Mathematics most commonly applied in Biology.</p> <p> </p>Mandira Kar5An Explicit and Semi – Implicit Rational Runge – Kutta Schemes for Approximation of Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25401
<p>In this paper, two schemes of one stage are derived, an Explicit Rational Runge – Kutta and a Semi – Implicit Rational Runge – Kutta method were derived using Taylor and Binomial series expansion for the solution of general second order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations with constant step size. The analysis of the develop methods was carried out and found to be consistent and convergent and A – stable. The accuracy of the methods were tested on some examples and found to give better approximations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Explicit, Semi – Implicit Ration Runge – Kutta, Taylor series, Binomial Expansion,</p> <p>A – Stable.</p>Taparki R.Shikaa SSimon S.5Mathematical Modelling and Analysis of Treatment and Screening of Pneumonia
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25402
<p>Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of serious illness and deaths among children under five years of age in Tanzania and around the world. In this paper, a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of pneumonia with screening and treatment is formulated and analysed with the aim of understanding its transmission dynamics and the effects of these interventions.........</p><p>More details can be found in the full paper.</p>E. J. NdelwaM. KgosimoreE. S. MassaweL. Namkinga5Financial distress condition of Manufacturing Firms of Ethiopia
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25403
<p>Financial distress is the temporary lack of liquidity which leads to the permanent winding up of the business. The main objective of the study is to investigate the financial distress condition of manufacturing firms in Ethiopia for the period from 1999 to 2005. Due to data heterogeneity, non-continuity and because the Hausman test favors it over the Random Effect technique, the panel data General Least Square (GLS) regression method is used. The result proves that liquidity, profitability, and efficiency have positive and significant influence on debt service coverage. On contrary, leverage has negative and significant influence on Debt Service coverage</p> <p>To save infant manufacturing firms, policy makers have the opportunity to influence the financing policy of the firms in the promotion of equity financing by controlling leverage. Banks should supervise the liquidity, solvency, profitability and efficiency of firms in mitigating the debt burden through application of various techniques during loan evaluation process. The appropriate firm executives should consider improving efficiency of firm’s performance through retrenchment of assets and replacing, liquidity through improving cash collection, profitability through replacement of departments, products or lines of the business.</p> <p>FD have a negative impact on DSC and leading firms to bankruptcy and liquidation and can cause economic, social and political impact on manufacturing firms and contribute to the CEO resignation, employee’s layoff or loss of jobs, dividend reduction, plant closing and related consequential health and moral distress.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> <strong>Financial Distress, Debt Service Coverage, Ethiopia</strong></p>Andualem Ufo5Special Cases for Numerical Radius and Spectral Radius Inequalities
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25404
<p>In this paper, the aim of this study is to find special cases of some inequalities for numerical radius and spectral radius of a bounded linear operator on a Hilbert space, Finally, some new results about this subject are obtained.</p> <p><em> Keywords</em>: Spectral norm, Numerical radius, Spectral radius.</p>M. Al-hawariMahmood, R.M.S5MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLOW OVER AN IMMERSED AXI-SYMETRICAL BODY WITH CURVED SURFACE AND HEAT TRANSFER
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25405
<p>In this paper analysis has been carried out on the effects of thermal radiation on unsteady flow of a Newtonian fluid over an immersed axi-symmetrical body with curved surface in the presence of auniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are made dimensionless and solved by finite difference method. The results for the velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically along with the different range of dimensionless numbers of magnetic parameter M, percelt number, Reynold number, Eckert number, prandtl number etc.These results will have major application in designing bodies requiring high maneuverability and less resistance to the motion e.g. aerofoil and cooling fans.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Thermal radiation; curved surface; MHD, Heat transfer.</p>Kariuki MariamKinyanjui MathewAbonyo JeconiaKang’ethe Giterere5On The Class of (K-N) Quasi-Normal Operators On Hilbert Space
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25406
<p>In this work, we introduce another class of normal operator which is (K-N) quasi-normal operator and given some properties of this concept as well as discussion the relation between this operator with another types of normal operators.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: (K-N) quasi-normal</p>Salim D. MAhmed M.K.5Jordan Triple Higher Derivations on Prime Rings
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25407
<p>In this paper, we develop some important results relating to the concepts of triple higher derivation and Jordan triple higher derivation on ring R. We show that under certain conditions on R, every Jordan triple higher derivation on R is triple higher derivation on R.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> derivation, higher derivation, Jordan triples higher derivation.</p> <p><strong>Mathematics subject classification</strong>: 16W25, 16N60, 16Y30</p>Salah Mehdi SalihClaus Haetinger5ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF HISTORICAL DATA LENGTH IN NON SEASONAL ARIMA MODELS FORECASTING
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25408
<p>Different values of minimum data requirement for ARIMA models have been proposed. It also proposed to use as much data as they are available in formulating ARIMA models. This paper studied the impact of the size of the historical data on ARIMA models in forecasting accuracy. The study used 286 weekly records of amount of solid waste generated in Arusha City to formulate four ARIMA models using different data lengths or size. The first model, M1 used 30 observations, the second model, M2 used 60 observations, the third model M3 used 120 observations and the fourth model, M4 used 260 observations all of which are the most recent. A total of 26 observations were held out for validation. The precision in forecasting was tested using MAPE, RMSE and MAD. The results indicated variation in precision. M3 performed best in one-week ahead and 9 – 12 weeks ahead while M4 did best in 2 – 8 weeks and also for 13 weeks and above. M1 was the worst model in forecasting.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ARIMA models, MAPE, RMSE, MAD, Forecasting</p>Amon MwendaDmitry KuznetsovSilas Mirau5Modelling Stability in the Demand for Sea Transport in Nigeria’s Freight Market: A Cointegration Analysis
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25409
<p>Using time series data on seaborne trade, government public expenditure and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), we investigated the existence of long run equilibrium relationship among these variables in Nigeria’s shipping market. The object was to determine stability in demand for shipping services while relying on the assumption that volume of seaborne trade is a proxy for sea transport demand. We subjected these time series variables to unit roots tests and found they were not stationary at level but at first difference i.e. they are integrated of the order <em>I</em>(1). However, to assess the underlying relationship between the variables, seaborne trade was separately regressed against government expenditure and GDP. Analysis of the regression residuals confirms the existence of cointegrating relationship between seaborne trade and GDP. Much against our a priori expectation, it was also found that no such relationship exists between seaborne trade and government expenditure. In addition, Granger causality tests also showed that seaborne trade ‘granger cause’ GDP and not vice versa. Thus, the empirical evidence from our study indicates that GDP stabilizing policies are a pre-condition to maintaining stability in the freight market for shipping services in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>shipping demand, freight market, seaborne trade, stability, cointegration.</p><p> </p>Donatus .E. OnwuegbuchunamKenneth U. NnadiGeoffrey. U. Ugwuanyim5Solution of Fractional Mathieu Equation by Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Method
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25410
<p>In this paper we use reproducing kernel Hilbert space method (RKHSM) and fractional power series to solve fractional Mathieu equation. A comparison tables are given.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Mathieu equation, Reproducing kernel Hilbert space method, fractional power series.<strong></strong></p>Huda Emad AL-Deen JameelSaad N. AL- AzzawiShaher Momani5ON EQUALITY OF SPECTRA AND ESSENTIAL SPECRA OF OPERATORS IN HILBERT SPACES
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25411
<p>It is a well known fact in operator theory that for any operator A, the essential spectrum of A is contained in the spectrum of A. The task of finding conditions under which the two are equal has been the subject matter in a number of several research papers. In this paper we show that quasisimilar pure dominant operators have their essential spectra equal to their spectra provided one of the intertwining quasiaffinities is compact.</p> <p>AMS subject classification 47B47, 47A30, 47B20 key words and phrases: pure dominant and essential spectrum.</p>S.W. LUKETEROP.G. RUGIRIJ.M. KHALAGAI5A Generalized Multi-Group Discriminant Function Procedure for Classification: an Application To Ten Groups Of Yam Species
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25765
<p>Multivariate Analysis (MVA) is based on the Statistical principle of Multivariate Statistics which involves observation and analysis of more than one Statistical outcome variables at a time. Classification in Multivariate analysis deals with developing a statistical rule for allocating observation to one or more groups. A closely associated multivariate technique is discriminant analysis which predicts group membership for an observation. Fishers (1936) developed a technique (Fishers Linear Discriminant Function) that optimally discriminate only two groups. The challenges of developing a mathematical based procedure with some underlying distribution for multiple groups have remained a task to be accomplished as it only exist in theory but not in practice. Owing to these challenges, this work introduces and suggests a mathematical procedure that is based on combinatorial analysis which gave rise to All Possible Pair of functions and allocation rules for a multiple group case. The developed procedure was generalized and applied to both real and simulated data. The developed procedure gave a higher accuracy rate for the real and simulated data under various sample sizes when compared with other conventional methods. It is therefore recommended that the All Possible Pair procedure could be a better approach in situations of any multivariate data structure.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Discriminant, Function, Classification, combination, Accuracy Rate.</p><p> </p>Anyanwu Paul E.Ekezie Dan DanOnyeagu I. SidneyNwankwo, I. I.M5A Logistic Regression Model of Students’ Academic Performance in University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25766
<p>A Logistic regression model was used to investigate the factors that influence student’s performance in MTH101 (Element of Calculus) course. The data used were the grades of the (200-400) level students in MTH101 course which was collected from the department’s examination record and also by questionnaire administered to the students. The data analysis shows that the factors that significantly influence academic performance in MTH101 course are G.P.A (student’s academic Performance), course challenge (student’s attitude related to the course) and concept in the course relate to real world experience (student’s motivation). It was therefore recommended that intervention strategies to bring about improvement in the course should be focused on how to enhance academic performance, change course related attitudinal problems and provide sufficient motivation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE, LOGISTIC REGRESSION, AT RISK STUDENTS, ODDS RATIO, LEARNING IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY, COUNSELING, ATTITUDINAL PROBLEMS AND MOTIVATION.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p>B.O. SuleF.W.O. Saporu5A stochastic Approach for Intergenerational Socioprofessional Mobility in France: A Markovian Analysis Applied to Data from “Formation et Qualification Professionnelle” Surveys
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/25767
<p>In France, studies on social mobility are based on data from Training and Professional Qualification (Formation et Qualification Professionnelle, FQP, in French) surveys conducted over several decades by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. While previous researches limited their statistical analyses of data from these surveys<strong> </strong>at descriptive level, ours introduces a stochastic model that helps to better apprehend the evolution of intergenerational mobility and social structure over time in France. Thus, using data from six (1953, 1970, 1977, 1985, 1993 and 2003) FQP surveys, our paper analyses, with a regular Markov chain, the evolution of intergenerational mobility and social structure in France during five decades in adopting the two following approaches: <br /> a) The Individual Process: Analysis of intergenerational transition probabilities and the matrices of the mean first passage times in each state of the system;</p> <p>b) The Collective Process: Examining the condition of reversibility of different matrices of exchange and comparison of permanent vectors (fixed or limits) obtained from the intergenerational transition matrices.</p> <p>The outcomes show a significant change (with the decline of lower-class) in the social structure in this country over the time, while the social immobility remains high in the upper-class.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong><strong><em> </em></strong>Regular Markov chains, social structure, transition probabilities, destiny, origin, permanent vectors</p> <p> </p>Etienne Rusamira5Numerical Solution For Mixed Volterra-Fredholm Integral Equations Of The Second Kind By Using Bernstein Polynomials Method
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/26140
In this paper, we have used Bernstein polynomials method to solve mixed Volterra-Fredholm integral equations(VFIE’s) of the second kind, numerically. First we introduce the proposed method, then we used it to transform the integral equations to the system of algebraic equations. Finally, the numerical examples illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of this method. Keywords: Bernestein polynomials method, linear Volterra-Fredholm integral equations.Mohammed Khalid Shahooth5