Mathematical Theory and Modeling
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM
<p><span id="internal-source-marker_0.04939836589619517"><span id="internal-source-marker_0.04939836589619517">Mathematical Theory and Modeling </span>is a peer reviewed journal published by IISTE. The journal publishes original papers at the forefront of mathematical theories, modelings, and applications. The journal is published in both printed and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</span></p><p><span>IISTE is member of <a href="http://www.crossref.org/01company/17crossref_members.html">CrossRef</a>.<br /></span></p>en-USMathematical Theory and Modeling2224-5804A Comparative Analysis of Malaria Incidence In Rural And Urban Areas Of Anambra State: A Manova Approach
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19231
<p>Malaria being a life threatening disease in African and the entire globe as a large demands a thorough investigation for effective prevention. In this study, we carried out a comparative analysis of malaria incidence in rural and urban areas of Anambra State using Beacon and Madonna Hospitals Awka, Awka South L.G.A and Nnamdi Azikiwe and St. Joseph’s Hospitals Neni Anaocha L.G.A. in Anambra State as a case study. Multivariate Discriminant Analysis was used to determine the difference in the incidence of malaria between the rural and urban health centers of Anambra State and also access the difference between classified gender groups. From the analysis of the data collected, we discovered that there is a significant difference in the incidence of malaria between rural and urban areas of Anambra State which is as a result of the availability of efficient health facilities in the urban area than rural areas. Also, there exists a clear difference in the rate of malaria incidence among the gender group living in Anambra State.</p>Eke Charles NNwosu Dozie F.Onuoha Desmound OOgbumuo Dennis T.5Cycle Index Formulas for Dn Acting on Unordered Pairs
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19232
<p>The cycle index of dihedral group..........</p><p> </p><p>More information can be found in the full paper.</p>Geoffrey MuthokaIreri KamutiHussein LaoPatrick Mwangi5Modelling the Economic Growth Rate of Ghana using the Solow Model
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19233
<p>The main objective of this study was to use the Solow growth model (Augmented Cobb-Douglas production function) as a basis to model the economic growth of Ghana during the period 1990 to 2010. Economic growth around the world has not been equal for a long time. Some economies grow faster than others. Economists have predicted that the slower growing economies will eventually converge to the faster growing economies at some point in time. In this study, we model the economic growth of Ghana using the Solow production model and applying growth differential equations. Starting from the estimates of the parameters from other studies, the growth model was simulated for the period 1990 to 2010. The recording and computation of the data was done using Matlab, SPSS and Excel. The computations were Capital, Labour force, Total Factor Productivity, and Total Production and the results from models were compared with the real GDP growth figures and variations noted.</p> <p>The estimations from the model were compared with the actual figures from the Ghana Statistical Service, World Bank and Bank of Ghana. The model provides a good approximation of the dynamics of the Ghanaian economy for the 1990 to 2010 periods, with respect to the dynamics of the real aggregate GDP growth and to the ratios of the main macroeconomic variables, like production per worker, capital-output ratio or capital per worker.</p> <p>The results showed a very close relationship between the actual and calculated growth rates over the periods 1990 to 2010. The actual average growth rate over the period was 4.5% as compared to the calculated average value of 4.21%. In conclusion, there was a correlation between the actual growth rates and the calculated but the strength was weak.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Solow growth model, Economic growth of Ghana, Real GDP growth, Macroeconomic variables, actual and calculated growth rate</p>Daniel Yeboah-ForsonJohn Awuah AddorMathias GyamfiFrank B. K. Twenefour5Statistical Exploration of Academic Performance of Students in some Selected Programmes of the University of Cape Coast
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19234
<p>Education is a basic human right to which every individual should have access to. Every country designs education that will be suitable for it citizens so as to achieve as a whole the country’s educational aims and objectives. Academic performance is a subject of great concern in Ghanaian education and is the main criterion that is used to admit students into both Senior High and University education.</p> <p>The main objective of the study was to investigate whether there exit exist a relationship between academic performance at the Senior High School (SHS) and that of university. The study answered the following research questions: Which variables significantly contribute to academic performance of the students at University level? ; Are the variables stated reliable to predict the results of students in future?</p> <p>The data for the study were secondary data obtained from the Data Processing Unit, University of Cape Coast. In all, result of thousand one hundred and fifty three (1153) students were collected. Convenience sampling was used for data collection. Statistical analyses were done using Minitab. Regression analysis was the main statistical tool for this study.</p> <p>The study revealed that students’ Grade Point Average (GPA) at the university has little to do with their previous academic performance at the Senior High School. Programme offered contributes significantly to academic performance at the University. Although, there was a weak relationship between the explanatory variables, there were some variables that contributes or determines students’ academic performance.</p> <p>The study recommends that students performance at the University should not solely based on entry aggregate. Other factors can also be considered such as programme, academic environment, the availability of academic resources, teaching empowerment, student attitude, and finance.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Grade Point Average, Entry Aggregate, Programme, Performance, Senior High School</p>Joseph Kwabina Arhinful JohnsonFrederick Narkwa Anderson5Numerical solution for the time-Fractional Diffusion-wave Equations by using Sinc-Legendre Collocation Method
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19235
<p>In this paper the numerical solution of fractional diffusion wave equation is proposed. The fractional derivative will be in the Caputo sense. The proposed method will be based on shifted Legendre collocation scheme and sinc function approximation for time and space respectively. The problem is reduced to the problem into a system of algebraic equations after implementing this method. For demonstrating the validity and applicability of the proposed numerical scheme some examples are presented.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<em>:</em></strong> Fractional diffusion equation, Sinc functions, shifted Legendre polynomials, Collocation method.</p>Osama H. MohammedFadhel, S. Fmohammed G. S. AL-Safi5On Mathematical Model of Traffic Control
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19236
<p>This paper presents the formation of platoons and their velocity-size distribution in freeway traffic using the stochastic approach. This is aimed at reducing traffic congestions, maintaining safety, increasing highway capacity, limiting the speed of a car by the spacing between it and the car directly ahead and above all reducing motor accidents. Traffic systems shall also be modeled and applied to traffic problems of different kinds to find their solutions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Models, Traffics, Platoons, Multi-Agent Systems (MAS)</em></p>R.B. OgunrindeOlayinka Lebile5On s*g-a-Proper Functions
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19237
<p>In this paper we introduce a new class of functions in topological spaces, namely, s*g-?-proper functions. Also, we study the basic properties and characterizations of these functions. One of the most important of equivalent definitions to the s*g-?-proper functions gives by using s*g-?-limit points of nets. Moreover we define and study s*g-?-perfect functions and s*g-?-compact functions in topological spaces and we study the relation between s*g-?-proper functions and each of proper functions, s*g-?-perfect functions, closed functions, s*g-?-closed functions and s*g-?-compact functions and we give an example when the converse may not be true.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> s*g-?-proper functions, s*g-?-perfect functions, s*g-?-closed functions, s*g-?-compact functions, s*g-?-limlt points, compactly s*g-?-closed sets and s*g-?-K-spaces.</p> <p> </p>Sabiha Ibraheem MahmoodJumana Serri Tareq5Some Results on Special Kind of Algebra
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19238
<p>In this paper we define a new class of algebra we call it a non associative seminear ring with BCK algebra and define a non associative sub seminear ring with BCK algebra , then we study and prove some properties of them .</p>Sajda Kadhum MohammedAzal Taha Abdul Wahab5Application of Elzaki Transform Method on Some Fractional Differential Equations
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19239
<p>In the paper, we begin by introducing the origin of fractional calculus and the consequent application of the Elzaki transform on fractional derivatives. The Elzaki transformation may be used to solve mathematical problems without resorting to a new frequency domain. Once we establish this connection firmly in the general setting, we turn our attention to the application of the Elzaki transform method to some non-homogeneous fractional, ordinary differential equations. Ultimately, we acquire the graphical solution of the problem by using Matlab 2013a, developed by MathWorks</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Elzaki Transform, Fractional Differential Equation, Linear and Non-linear, Initial Value Problem, Non-homogenous</p>M. KhalidMariam SultanaFaheem ZaidiUroosa Arshad5The new class of A-stable hybrid multistep methods for numerical solution of stiff initial value problem
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19240
<p>In this paper, we present a class of hybrid multistep methods for the numerical solution</p> <p>of first-order initial value problems. We have used second derivative of solution (similar to second derivative multistep methods of Enright) and an off-step point. The accuracy and stability analysis are discussed. Stability domains of our presented methods have been obtained?, ?showing that this class of efficient numerical methods are A))-stable of order up to 10. Numerical results are also given for four test problems?.</p> <div><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Initial value problems, Multistep methods, Off-step point, Stability aspects.</em></p></div>M. Mehdizadeh Khalsaraei, M. Molayi5Note on Omega -closed sets in topological spaces
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19241
<p>In this paper we introduce a new class of sets called - closed sets in topological spaces and we study some of its basic properties.It turns out that this class lies between the class of ? -open sets and the class of ?g (resp. )-closed sets.Unique feature is, this new class of sets forms a topology.</p> <p><strong>Key words and Phrases:</strong> semi open sets, ? -open sets, ? -closure, sker, -closed sets.</p>M.LellisT hivagarM. Anbuchelvi5Bayesian Logistic Regression Model on Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19242
<p>This research evaluates the risk of diabetes among 581 men and women with factors such as age, ethnicity, gender, physical activity, hypertension, body mass index, family history of diabetes, and waist circumference by applying the logistic regression model to estimate the coefficients of these variables. Significant variables determined by the logistic regression model were then estimated using the Bayesian logistic regression (BLR) model. A flat non-informative prior, together with a non- informative non- flat prior distribution were used. These results were compared with those from the frequentist logistic regression (FLR) based on the significant factors. It was shown that the Bayesian logistic model with the non-informative flat prior distribution and frequentist logistic regression model yielded similar results, while the non-informative non-flat model showed a different result compared to the (FLR) model. Hence, non-informative but not perfectly flat prior yielded better model than the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) and Bayesian with the flat prior.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bayesian approach, Binary logistic regression, Parameter estimate, Prior, MCMC.</p> <p> </p>Emenyonu Sandra ChiakaMohd Bakri AdamIsthrinayagy Krishnarajah5Wireless Networks Detection in Mobile Phone Using J2ME Language
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19243
<p>Using J2ME language in NOKIA mobile cellular phones, we detects internet access points names by IAPInfo.</p> <p>IAPInfo (Internet Access Point Information) is a simple API Java Micro Edition, which is a Nokia proprietary package, which is used by applications to access related information about fundamentals of Internet access points and destination networks. This information is retrieved from the native OS, where all the communication related settings are stored.</p> <p>This project concerned with detection an Internet access points names and listed in a menu, by using the J2ME language which is the suitable programming languages that deal with mobile phone applications, and it provides convenient environment for these devices.</p> <p>Finally, the project yields satisfied results when it is tested practically using mobile NOKIA (N78) .</p>Ansam Emad NajiSabreen Emad Naji5Stated Preference Modeling for a Preferred Transportation Mode
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19244
<p>This paper contains econometric analysis of commuters’ behaviour with regards to their choice between different transportation modes (car and bus) in traveling to Accra central. Using the data collected from an experimental survey, a binary logit model and its marginal effects was estimated. The magnitude of estimates generally indicates that bus users highly value attributes such as price and habit. However, the level of noise, comfort, and time (morning trips) will result in a disutility of public transport choice.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Commuters, discrete choice model, mode choice, public transport, stated preference</p>Isaac K. BaidooEric Nyarko5Assisting Basic Six Pupils of Presbyterian Women’s College of Education Demonstration School, Aburi-Akuapem, To Discover the Product of Two Multi-Digit Multiplicands Using the Lattice
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19245
<p>An action research was performed with the aim of solving problems involving two multi-digit multiplicands using the lattice to give pupils’ conceptual understanding of multiplication in basic six at the Presbyterian Women’s College of Education Demonstration School. Twenty-five pupils out of fifty (50) were selected using The simple random sampling technique from a combined class of Six ‘A’ and Six ‘B’ who have difficulties in answering questions under multiplication involving two multi-digit numbers, after writing a teacher made test (Pre-Test). The Pre- Test produced 16% pass mark as compared to the post-test which gave 88% pass mark after the intervention. The discovery method of teaching was used in the intervention procedure to find the multiplication of multi-digit numbers. Pupils were directed to use the lattice to perform activities which had the potential of developing their conceptual understanding of the topic. The data collected indicated that some pupils improved their understanding but some pupils needed more time to re-learn the subject. This research only presents some practical solutions proposed within the time available.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Action Research, Pre- Test, post-test, Multi-Digit Numbers<strong></strong></p>Amoah Kingsley JosephIsaac Kwasi AduAmoah RuthOsei-Boadu Yaw5On Applications of Transitive Permutation Groups To Wreath Product
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19246
<p>In this article we investigate and examine some of our results from transitive permutation groups which have some bearing to wreath product<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> transitive, permutation, group, wreath product</p>Apine, E.5Modeling Mode Choice in Passenger Transport with Discrete Choice Experiment
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19247
<p>This article employs a discrete choice experiment technique to assess commuters’ attitude when they have an option of choosing a commercial vehicle from Nkrumah-Circle in Accra. This procedure with the binary probit in STATA permits the identification of the choice alternatives defining the experiment by capturing the choices of a user sample. By using the data collected from an experimental survey, a probit model was calibrated and segmented according to trip purposes; commuting and non-commuting trips. The magnitude of estimates generally indicates that commuters highly value travel safety, travel distance comfort, less waiting time, and commercial vehicles with good appearance. However, generally, an increase in transport fare will result in a disutility of commercial vehicle choice.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Commercial vehicle, commuters, discrete choice experiment, public transport</p>Isaac K. BaidooEric NyarkoFelix O. Mettle5Boundary value problems for hybrid differential equations
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19248
<p>This note is motived from some papers treating the hybrid differential equations. An existence theorem for this equation is proved. Some fundamental differential inequalities for hybrid differential equatins are also established which are utilized to prove the existence of extremal solutions. Necessary tools are considered and the comparison principle is proved which will be useful for further study of qualitative behavior of solutions.</p>K. HilalA. Kajouni5Minimax Estimation of the Scale Parameter of Laplace Distribution under Squared-Log Error Loss Function
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/MTM/article/view/19249
<p>In this paper, we obtained Minimax estimator of the scale parameter for the Laplace distribution under the Squared log error loss function by applying the theorem of Lehmann [1950], and compared it with Minimax estimator under Quadratic loss function in addition of Maximum Likelihood Estimator according to Monte-Carlo simulation study. The performance of these estimators is compared depending on the mean squared errors (MSE’s).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Minimax estimator, Laplace distribution, Bayes estimator, Squared-log error loss function, Jeffery prior, Mean squared error.<strong></strong></p>Huda, A. RasheedEmad,F. AL-Shareefi5