http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/issue/feedAdvances in Physics Theories and Applications2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00Alexander Deckeradmin@iiste.orgOpen Journal Systemshttp://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26930A Comparative Study of some Meteorological Parameters for Predicting Global Solar Radiation in Kano, Nigeria Based on Three Variable Correlations2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00D. O. Akpootud@d.comM. I. Iliyasud@d.com<p>In this present study, twenty empirical regression equations based on three variable correlations were developed and used to estimate the monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface using measured monthly average daily global solar radiation, sunshine duration, wind speed, maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall, cloud cover and relative humidity parameters during the period of thirty one years (1980 – 2010) for Kano, Nigeria (Latitude 12.03<sup>0</sup>N, Longitude 08.12<sup>0</sup>E and altitude 472.5 m above sea level). The comparative performance of the developed models has been evaluated on the basis of statistical parameters using Mean Bias Error (MBE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Percentage Error (MPE), t – test and Nash – Sutcliffe Equation (NSE). The values of the correlation coefficient (R) and coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) were also obtained for each of the developed models. The MPE values for all the developed models lie within the acceptable range . The t – test produces perfect model performance at 95% and 99% confidence level for all the developed models. Three equations were recommended from this study, firstly, the model (Eqn. 20) with the highest value of R and R<sup>2</sup>, secondly, the model (Eqn. 24) with the least value of RMSE and the highest value of NSE and thirdly, the model (Eqn. 31) with the least values of MPE and t – test. These developed models can be used for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation for Kano, North – Western, Nigeria and other locations with similar weather conditions where the solar radiation data is unavailable.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>global solar radiation, Kano, variable correlation, Mean Bias Error (MBE) and coefficient of determination.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26931Effect of Hall Currents, Thermal Radiation Convective Heat Transfer Flow of a Rotating Nano-Fluid Past a Vertical Plate with Oscillatory Wall Velocity2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00P. Srinivasa Raod@d.com<p class="CM23"><span lang="EN-US">We<span> investigate the effect of thermal radiation and oscillatory wall velocity on unsteady convective heat transfer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical plate in the presence of heat generating sources. Analytical closed form solutions are obtained for both the momentum and the energy equations using the regular perturbation method. Graphs are used to illustrate the significance of key parameters on the nanofluid velocity and temperature distributions. </span></span></p> <p class="CM23"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Keywords:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Thermal Radiation, Heat transfer, Nanofluid, Vertical Plate</span></p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26932Heat Transfer in MHD Flow over A Stretching Sheet with Velocity and Thermal Slip Condition2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00M.C. Kemparajud@d.comM. Subhas Abeld@d.comMahantesh M. Nandeppanavard@d.com<p>The present work is concerned with the effects of surface slip conditions and thermal on an electrically conducting fluid over a non-isothermal stretching surface in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. Similarity transformation is used to transform the partial differential equations describing the problem into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which is solved analytically. The effects of various parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as on the local skin-friction and the local Nusselt number are discussed in detail and displayed through graphs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> MHD; Heat transfer; Slip conditions, Kumer’s function, Similarity transformation</p> <p> </p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26933Restriction of Particle Size and Lattice Strain through X-Ray Diffraction Peak Broadening Analysis of ZnO Nanoparticles2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00Khalid. Hellal. Harbbid@d.comAhmed Alaa Ihsand@d.com<p>In this study have been determined the crystallite size and lattice strain of ZnO nanoparticles as shown in Figure (1) by using variance and integral breadth methods, and also used some other methods such as Scherrer and Williamson-Hall to calculate above parameters. In variance method we have calculated the values of crystallite size, mean square strain and lattice strain are (22.276 nm), (0.133473 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) and (14.479 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) respectively, and the crystallite size is (25.126 nm) as well as the lattice strain is (2.443 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) by using integral breadth method. The other methods such as Scherrer which gives the value of crystallite size is (17.622 nm) and lattice strain is (6.036 x 10<sup>-3</sup>), while the Williamson-Hall gives the following values: crystallite size is (22.063 nm) and the lattice strain is (1.192 x 10<sup>-3</sup>).<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>X-ray diffraction, Variance analysis method, integral breadth method.</p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26934Studying Variance Method of X-Ray Diffraction Line Profile Then Develop It to Three New Models for Determine New Parameters2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00Khalid. Hellal. Harbbid@d.comAhmed Alaa Ihsand@d.com<p>In this study have been determined the crystallite size and lattice strain of ZnO nanoparticles by using variance and have been developed the variance method by presenting three new models (UDVM, UDSVM and UDEDVM) to determine lattice parameters such as crystallite size, lattice strain, stress and energy density for the first time. In variance method we have calculated the values of crystallite size, mean square strain and lattice strain (22.276 nm), (0.133473 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) and (14.479619 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) respectively. We have calculated the values of crystallite size and lattice strain (22.276 nm) and (14.47962 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) respectively by using UDVM, the values of crystallite size, stress and lattice strain (22.276 nm), (3.7266 x 10<sup>-3</sup> TPa) and (14.48006 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) respectively by using UDSVM and the values of crystallite size, stress, energy density & lattice strain (22.276 nm), (2.9957 x 10<sup>-3</sup> TPa), (21689.7 KJ/m<sup>3</sup>) and (14.48024 x 10<sup>-3</sup>) respectively by using UDEDVM.</p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26935Quantum (Second Harmonic) Efficiency and Conversion Coefficient for a Frequency Doubled He- Ne Laser.2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00Dilshad Abdulrahimd@d.comNahlah Mohammedd@d.comTwana Kak Anwerd@d.com<p>It is the aim of this project to study the ability of producing second harmonic generation for a (10 mW) He-Ne laser and to test some optical properties for KDP crystal and to compare the results with those obtained in testing the same crystal with using a (18 mW) Laser Tube. It seems that the performance of visible radiation is more accurate rather than near IR radiation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Non- Liner Conversion Coefficient, Power Efficiency (P<sub>2</sub>/P<sub>1</sub>), Second Harmonic Generation (SHG).</p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26936The Behavior of Beta is Explained by Constant U2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00Salah Eidd@d.com<p>In the nuclear range, the distance of an electron from a proton in the neutron (as a system) is inversely proportion to the electron's energy according to constant U which is identical with the neutron's system. Therefore at a distance equals the basic nuclear diameter the electron's energy is at its minimum value ( .511 Mev ) where the electron moves with the speed of light c and here it begins to be called a beta ray. When the distance is at its shortest value equaling the basic nuclear radius, the electron's energy is at its maximum value (1.17 Mev) where the electron's speed exceeds that of light. Therefore through constant U we can understand the behavior of beta with its various energies getting out the nucleus simply and naturally far from the problems created by Quantum theory that prevents the existence of the electron in nuclear range, and S. Relativity that prevents any speed exceeding that of light, and according to it moving with the speed of light transfers the whole mass into a pure energy. In fact, science must continue examining its concepts in order to deal correctly with the facts of universe.</p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26937Study of Structural and electrical Properties of WO3 as Thin Films2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00Malek Alid@d.comMayada Hbousd@d.com<p>Three thin films were prepared by PVD starting from WO<sub>3</sub> powder with thicknesses ( 998.7, 1620, 2240 nm ) respectively on glass substrates under limited thermal and pressure conditions, studied their I-V characteristics and calculated the sensitivity for 100 ppm of ethanol vapor adsorption (The temperature of the films have been changed from 25°C to 350°C). A comparison among them was achieved at 300 °C as an operating degree and found that the 1620 nm WO<sub>3</sub> has more sensitivity and has more power to adsorb for ethanol vapor on it. The crystal structure of the prepared WO<sub>3</sub> thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, then the comparison of the development which happened on the crystal structure reasons of deposition were studied. the crystal size has been calculated from patterns X-ray diffraction depended Scherrer Equation</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Tungsten Oxide WO<sub>3</sub>, Ethanol Vapor, Sensing properties, thin film<em>.</em></p>http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/APTA/article/view/26938Analytical approximate solutions for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations2015-11-28T10:44:46+00:00A. S. J. Al-Saifd@d.com<p>Analytical approximate solutions of the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by means of Adomian decomposition method are presented. The power of this manageable method is confirmed by applying it for two selected flow problems: The first is the Taylor decaying vortices, and the second is the flow behind a grid, comparison with High-order upwind compact finite-difference method is made. The numerical results that are obtained for two incompressible flow problems showed that the proposed method is less time consuming, quite accurate and easily implemented. In addition, we prove the convergence of this method when it is applied to the flow problems, which are describing them by unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Navier-Stokes equations, Adomian decomposition, upwind compact difference, Accuracy, Convergence analysis,Taylor's decay vortices, flow behind a grid.</p>